63 terms

Chapter 10: Environmental Issues

POL 102, Payne, Miami University
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Environmental Security
A conept placing protection of the environment on equal ground with national security
Mesopotamia
an ancient civilization between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, now known as Iraq
John Evelyn
Naturalist who criticized London for its high levels of pollution. 1661.
Contemporary ecological changes vs. earlier periods
1. predominately global
2. now they are biodegenerative products of humanity (air and water pollution, deforestation, overfishing, and soil erosion) vs. before they were biophysical
3. more vulnerable to environmental crises because human activities and government policies
4. ancient societies had more time and space to deal with environmental threats then we do today
Silent Spring
Written by Rachel Carson, focused on the negative effects of pesticides on birds and other wildlife.
Torrey Canyon
Oil tanker that crashed off the coast of England in 1967. broughtt attention and support for globalizing environmental issues.
Early environmental problems that were adressed
protected wildlife in Africa and Western Hemisphere, Pacific fur seals, and whaling. Ocean oil pollution and nuclear weapons.
Biosphere conference
held in 1968; focused on the degradation of the environment from human activities (air and water pollution, deforestation, drainage of wetlands, overgrazing)
UN Conference on Human Environment
held in 1972; aimed at international cooperation in environmental protections
Summit on Sustainable Development
focused simultaneously on economic growth and environmental protections.
states need to cooperate
poltical and economic considerations often weaken the effectiveness of environmental agreements
Factors that influence the implementation and compliance of environmental agreements
1. nature of substances or activities that are regulated
2. characteristic of the agreement
3. global environment
4. domestic factors
NGOs and the Environment
National Wildlife Federation and National Audubon Society are the older groups. participate in global conferences on behalf of small, ecologically vulnerable islands of the Pacific. There are also NGOs that represent industries and try and limit the effectiveness of environmental organizations
Women and the Environment
Women in Kenya (Green Belt Movement: prevents further deforestation and restoration of the land).
1. women are disproportionately disadvantaged by environmental problems
2. gender bias is an impediment to achieving sustainable development
3. women's participation is vital to efforts to achieve sustainable development
Indigenous people and the Environment
lives are intertwined with natural environment, indigenous people have greatly declined because their land is confiscated. many indigenous peole are poor, alcohol abuse is prevalent, and life expectancy is low.
REDD
Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Degradation. pays people jot preserve forests, could potentially improve the lives of indigenous peoples
NGOs encounter 3 impediments
1. no common authority or power that can effectively force members to comply
2. decentralization nature of international bureaucracies and their dependence on states make it difficult
3. global agreements and organizations are primarily produced by governments
Strategies used by NGOs
1. Get media coverage
2. Share information among groups in order to educate
3. Lobby government officials
4. Acquire and manage property
5. Pressure companies to protect the environment
Biodiversity
The large number and diversity of organisms on Earth. concentrated in forests of developing countries (Brazil, China, Colombia, Ecuador, India etc) Australia is the only developed country that has a large diversity
Crossbreeding of crops
makes them more resistant to disease and pests. especially important for medicinal and pharmaceutical product development
Convention on Biological Diversity
Designed to establish an international regime to protect biodiversity (1991). Provides for 1) national identification and monitoring of biological diversity 2) development of national strategies and programs for conserving biological diversity 3) environment assessment 4) sharing of research findings 5) provision of technology for conservation 6) facilitation of participation in biotechnology research
North/South Divide
Refers to the large economic divide between many Northern and Southern states
International Whaling Commission (IWC)
Established to protect the price of whale oil. 1935 they L of N tries to regulate their exploitation. Whales provide a lot of different uses and sell for a lot of money.
Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
convention prohibiting trade in whale products. 1975. IWC agreed to a moratorium on whaling, except done by Inuit of Alaska and Canada, whose diet and culture depends on it.
Dolphins
endangered species, seen to have human qualities through the perception of movies and tv. many killed through commercial fishing of tuna. NGOs encourage tuna companies to adopt dolphin-safe measures.
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC)
commission devoted to protecting dolphins, among other things
TEDS
to eliminate this problem, the U.S. government required strip trawlers to use turtle extruder devices (TEDs) on their nets. fishers were losing tons of their shrimp, giving american fishers a competitive disadvantage.
Congo Basin
Tropical area in central Africa. composed of Cameroon, Gabon, the Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, and Equatorial Guinea.
Deforestation
due to the the depletion of forests, biodiversity is decreasing. Air quality, water supplies, climate stability, agricultural productivity, and countless human communities are affected by deforestation.
Causes of Deforestation
-population pressures and poverty. demonstrated by Chiapas (poorest state in Mexico).
-deliberate setting of fires by small farmers, commercial farmers, cattle ranchers, logging companies, and governments to clear areas for grazing/planting
-selective logging
-government policies
-economic development
selective logging
cutting specific trees in order to promote forest sustainability
infrastructure
necessary elements of a stable society
commercial logging
process disrupting sustainable development
Plan for National Integration
Brazil's efforts to encourage the development of the Amazon.
Nossa Natureza Program
Designed to reduce the destruction of the Amazon included: 1) suspending fiscal incentives for development forest resources 2) limited log exports 3) creating national parks, and 4) increasing the emphasis on environmental protection research
IBAMA
Brazillian environmental protection agency
Gabon's Lope Reserve
Area in Gabon containing rich biodiversity. highest density of large animals including elephants and gorillas ever recorded
Green Belt Movement in Kenya
objectives: 1) raising awareness of the connection between the environment and poverty 2) promoting the planting of multi use trees to meet fuel needs, provide employment, protect the environment and provide food for the community 3) disseminating information on environmental protection through research, seminars, and workshops
forest certification
required in order to protect against deforestation
Forest Stewardship Council
Group of environmentalists and lumber companies dedicated to protecting forests. aimed at 1) protecting forests 2) protecting the rights of indigenous peoples 3) promoting economic development
Fishing
more people eat seafood. less and less fish remain in the sea
exclusive economic zones
coastal waters exclusive to each state. extend 200 miles where each coastal state can exercise jurisdiction
Law of the Sea Treaty
recognizes state rights over territorial coastal waters
IPMFC International Plan for Management of Fishing capacity
FAO plan to reduce overcapacity in the fishing industry.
Ocean Pollution
seen by many as a bottomless sink used as a dumping ground. Oil spills, development of costal areas, increase of petroleum products, etc. have contributed to pollution of oceans
Exxon Valdez
Oil tanker that spilled off the coast of Alaska. 1989. similar to more recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico 2010 BP. kills marine life
Ballast
sea water pumped into the bottom of the ship to keep it stable when not loaded with cargo. then water is pumped out when a ship is being loaded and is many times contaminated by water
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea (ICPS)
first international agreement aimed at reducing ocean pollution (1954)
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution by Ships (ICPPS)
Limited the discharge amounts of land sea pollutants
Global Warming and Climate Change
Ocean currents change temperatures. Greenhouse gases, deforestation, urbanization, and agricultural activities affect climate
Greenhouse effect
Rise in Earth's temperature from greenhouse gases
U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP)
Established to study ozone depletion an dthe greenhouse effect.
Acid Rain
toxic rain caused by industrial activities. Those in the U.S. are also a problem for Canada
Ozone layer
layer of atmosphere blocking UV radiation. most severe in Antarctica and the Northern Hemisphere. major cause are CFCs (Synthetic products causing ozone depletion)
Kyoto Protocol
International agreement on reducing carbon dioxide emmisions
Four main reasons for opposing global effort to reduce emission
1) emission controls will reduce their revenues by decreasing energy consumption 2) imports form industrialized countries would be more expensive because of measures taken to reduce carbon dioxide emissions 3) development of new fuels to help cut down emissions is likely to reduce demand for their exports 4) oil, gas, and coal resources are part of their heritage.
emissions trading
trading of greenhouse gases to reduce climate change
Chicago Climate Exchange
attempts to decree greenhouse gases through a market approach. another approach is to reduce effects of emissions from industries and automobiles.
Water Scarcity
-many disputes over water (India and Pakistan over Ganges and Brahmaputa rivers)
-Indian people nearly one billion people do not have safe drinking water
-a lack of secure, uninterrupted, long-term availability of adequate clean freshwater
Military Activities and the Environment
-bombs remain unexploded around the world
-Agent Orange
-chechnya
Environmental security program
pentagon environmental program
South Pacific Nuclear Weapon Free Zone
created in 1985 to reduce the risk of nuclear contamination
Ottawa Treaty
Addressed the danger of land mines