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Parenchyma Cells

Cells found in the leaf that have thin cell walls and large vacuoles for photosynthesis, food storage and respiration

Collenchyma Cells

Cells found in the stem that have thick and stretchy cell walls to help create support

Sclerenchyma Cells

Cells found in fibers that have thick cell walls to create a system of support

Dermal Tissue

Tissue that makes up the epidermis in most leaves. It helps the plant prevent dehydration by absorbing H20

Vascular Tissue

Tissue that creates the veins of the plants in the center of roots, stems and leaves. They transport water and nutrients and provide a network of support throughout the plant. There are two types: Xylem and Phloem

Ground Tissue

Tissue that makes up most of the roots. Their main function is storage and support.

Meristematic TIssue

Tissue that consists of dividing cells. It is found wherever there is new structure forming in a plant.


Two functions: 1) Support the plant 2) Provide water and food to the plant


Used to gather light and accomplish photosynthesis. Gases are also exchanged in the leaves in a process called Transpiration.


Single layer of cells that cover the lower and upper sides of the leaf. They are covered with a cuticle on the outer wall. There are many stomata perforating the lower surface.

Functions of the Epidermis

Protects the internal issue from injury

Function of the cuticle

Prevents water loss


Made up green tissue of the leaf that consists of thin-walled cells containing chloroplasts, this tissue forms the bulk of the leaf. It is differentiated into the Palisade Parenchyma and the Spongy Parenchyma. There is a system of air spaces which communicate with the air chambers behind the stomata.

Palisade Parenchyma

Consists of thin-walled cells which are usually cylindrical in shape. It is responsible for photosynthesis because they contain chloroplasts

Spongy Mesophyll

Ball-shaped with large intercellular spaces. The function of it allows for the interchange of gases


Consists of branched vascular bundles. These vascular bundles include Xylem and Phloem


Conducts water and dissolved ions to the mesophyll tissue


Conducts organic food such as glucose from the mesophyll to other parts of the plant


Communicates with the air chambers in the spongy mesophyll. Formed by a pair of guard cells.

Guard Cells

Have the ability to open and close the stoma

Function of the stomata

THe stomata are responsible for the interchange of gases for respiration and photosynthesis. The stomata allow for the loss of excess water in the form of water vapor, which also allows for cooling


The outer most ring that covers and protects the flower bud


Stick tip to catch pollen at the end of the style


Thin stalk-like structure that holds the anther


This bulk-like structure connects the flower to the stem


THe protective "organ" inside a flower that bears many seeds or "female" eggs


Modified leaves usually on the second ring of a flower. Can be different colors


Narrow structure that is found on the pistil that connects the ovary


Stalk at the top of the stamen that makes and holds pollen or "male sperm"


All the petals together are referred to as this


The male reproductive "organ" of a flower


The female reproductive "organs" of a flower


When seeds from one plant 'cross' to another plant

Self Pollination

When a plant's seed drops into its own reproductive organs

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