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History Alive: The Medieval World and Beyond -- Units 1 and 2: Europe During Medieval Times and The Rise of Islam

Units 1 and 2 study guide. I recommend you use the flashcards instead of the Quizlet learning game.
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Why did the Roman Empire fall?
Political instability in attempting to transfer power to a new leader, economic and social problems with taxes that had a negative effect on Rome's economy, and weakening frontiers.
Why did Constantine move his capital to the east?
Constantine moved his capital to the east because the east was easier to defend, and trade made the city wealthy
What was the city that Constantine moved his capital to called?
Byzantium
What was Constantine's capital called?
Constantinople
What were 3 Roman art forms?
Murals, mosaics, and frescoes
What were 3 Roman engineering and architectural innovations?
Vaults, domes, and aqueducts
What did Charlemagne create in Europe?
Charlemagne made his court a center for education and united all Christian lands of Europe into a single empire
How did Charlemagne help the pope?
By sending the church knights for support
How did the pope return Charlemagne's help?
By crowning Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor
Who was at the top of the feudal hierarchy?
Monarchs
What were was a monarch's duties?
A symbolic ruler who ruled with the help of lords and ladies as their vassals
Who was next in the feudal hierarchy?
Lords and ladies
What were Lords and Ladies' duties?
Run their estates, serve as judges in manor courts, send their knights to fight in times of war, and served as vassals for a monarch
Who was next in the feudal hierarchy?
Knights
What were a knight's duties?
A knight was to fight, and perform acts of chivalry
Who was next in the feudal hierarchy?
Peasants
What were a peasant's duties?
Peasants were workers of monarchs and lords and ladies
Who was next in the feudal hierarchy?
Serfs
What were a serf's duties?
A serf was to work for lords and ladies and monarchs, while having less rights than a peasant
What is feudalism?
The economic and political system that developed in Europe during the Middle Ages
What is a peasant?
In feudalism, a person who worked the land
What is a lord?
A ruler or powerful landowner
What is a knight?
An armed warrior
What is a fief?
A piece of land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service
What is a manor?
A large estate, including farmland and villages, held by a lord
What is the Divine Right of Kings?
The belief that God gives monarchs the right to rule
What is a hierarchy?
A system of organization dividing people into ranks, with those of higher ranking having more power and privileges
What is chivalry?
The medieval knight's code of ideal behavior, including bravery, loyalty, and respect for woman
What was the conflict between Pope Gregory and Henry IV?
Gregory's ruling angered Henry, and because of anger, Henry had declared Gregory was no longer pope. Gregor then excommunicated Henry
How was this conflict resolved?
Henry later begged Gregory for forgiveness, therefore readmitting him into the church
Who was Thomas Aquinas?
An Italian philosopher who theorized the relation between reason and faith
What ideas did Aquinas have?
Aquinas believed religion and reason worked together, because natural law was discovered by reason, but followed the moral principles of the bible
What were the seven sacraments?
Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Matrimony, Holy Orders, Penance, and Extreme Unction
What was Baptism?
Entry to the church by the cleansing of sin
What was Confirmation?
The formal declaration to God
What was Eucharist?
A church service where the priest blessed food and wine
What was Matrimony?
To be married by a priest, then signed into a book of records
What was Holy Orders?
The becoming of a priest
What was Penance?
The confession of sins
What was Extreme Unction?
(If close to death,) be blessed by a priest
What was the Middle Ages called "The Age of Faith?"
During the Middle Ages many people went on pilgrimages to holy sites to show devotion to religion, and receive wealth, salvation, and adventure
How did Christians hope to gain salvation?
Christians hoped to gain salvation because they believed that if they participated in the crusades they would be guaranteed salvation
How did the Roman Catholic Church affect art?
All art in the middle ages was made for a religious purpose
How did the Roman Catholic Church affect architecture?
Cathedrals and other buildings were always made with Christian devotion
How did the Roman Catholic Church affect education?
The Roman Catholic Church affected education because the clergy were the most likely to be educated
What is excommunication?
To formally deprive a person of membership in church
What is a pilgrimage?
A journey to a holy site
What is natural law?
The concept that there is a universal order built into nature that can guide moral thinking
What is salvation?
Entry into heaven and eternal life
How did mountains, rivers, and other bodies of water affect the growth of medieval towns?
Mountains, rivers, and bodies of water affected the growth of medieval towns, because as trade was promoted, most towns grew by waterways
What was the purpose of medieval guilds?
The purpose of medieval guilds was provide a representative for a certain craft or trade that made sure they sold good quality products at a reasonable price, made by workers who were paid a reasonable amount for a reasonable time
What were guilds?
An organization of people in the same craft or trade
What was common law?
A body of rulings made by judges that become part of a nation's legal system
What was the Magna Carta?
A legal document that limited the King's power and strengthen a noble's power
What was the Model Parliament?
A governing body where all the classes in society had a representative
How did the Magna Carta and the Model Parliament impact feudalism?
Both impacted feudalism because it gave others in the feudal system more power, and changed authority in the middle ages, therefore shifting feudalism
How did the Bubonic Plague spread from Central Asia to Europe?
The Bubonic Plague was spread by trade, traveling from the Black Sea, to the Silk Road, and probably arrived on Italy on a ship
What impact did the Bubonic Plague gave to the population of Europe?
The Bubonic Plague killed about twenty-four million Europeans, or a third of Europe
How did the Bubonic Plague impact feudalism?
The Bubonic Plague impacted feudalism because after the plague had ended, workers were needed though there were fewer peasants, which allowed them to demand better conditions, giving them more power in the feudal system, and changing authority
Which nations fought during the Hundred Years' War?
The French and the English
Who was Joan of Arc?
A woman who voluntarily fought for France in the Hundred Years' War and inspired many to fight with her
How did war weaken feudalism?
The Hundred Years' War weakened feudalism, because Monarchs had taxed Europeans heavily to fight in the war, and no longer needed their vassals, giving lords and ladies less power in the feudal hierarchy
How did the war impact Europe?
Because of the war, Europe had advancements in technology and new weapons. In addition, the war had given both the French and the English a new sense of unity to their country
What is habeas corpus?
The principle that accused people cannot be held in jail without the consent of court
What is heretic?
A person who holds beliefs contrary to the teachings of a church or other group
What is a longbow?
A large bow that is used for firing feathered arrows
What was important in Constantinople's location for trade?
Constantinople's location linked many trade routes together, promoting trade
What was important in Constantinople's location for military?
Constantinople's location was surrounded by three sides of water and hard to invade
What did the emperor Justinian I do during his reign?
Justinian settled the rebellion in 832 C.E; invested in public works, made a systematic body of law, and made up for his empire's lose territory and launched a military campaign
Which religion developed in Constantinople?
Christianity developed in Constantinople
How was Christianity in the East different than the Roman Catholic Church in the West?
Religion and government in the East were linked more closely together than they were in the West
What was the Great Schism?
The Great Schism marks the schism between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church
Why did the two churches separate?
The Eastern Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Church separated, because of disagreements on Iconoclasm, Holy Roman Emperor, but mainly it was because the Byzantines shut down all churches worshiped with western rites, that caused the east and west to excommunicate each other, therefore causing the great schism
What is the Byzantine Empire?
The Byzantine Empire was a great empire that straddled two continents: Europe and Asia, and lasted for 500 to 1453 C.E
What are three continents around the Arabian Peninsula?
Europe, Africa, and Asia
What are the bodies of water around the Arabian Peninsula?
Persian Gulf, the Arabian sea, and the Gulf of Aden
Why is the geography in the Arabian Peninsula important?
The geography in the Arabian Peninsula is important because it allows trade to pass through the peninsula
What are four types of terrain in the Arabian Peninsula?
Deserts, plains, oases, and mountains
What are adaptations used in the deserts?
Inhabitants are nomads, use camels, and have loose clothes to overcompensate for their environment
What are adaptations used in oases?
Inhabitants are sedentary, grow crops, and use date palms for construction to overcompensate for their environment
What are adaptations used in the plains?
Inhabitants built irrigation systems, grow crops, and trade on the coastal plain to overcompensate for their environment
What are adaptations used in the mountains?
Inhabitants used terraces to farm, made irrigation systems, built mud houses, and fertilized their land to make fit for vegetation to overcompensate for their environment
Where did Muhammad find out he was a prophet?
In a cave while he was praying
How did Muhammad find out he was a prophet?
The angel Gabriel told him that he was the messenger of God
What did Muhammad call Christians and Jews?
The People of the Book
Why did Muhammad call them this?
Because Jews, Christians, and Muslims all believed in the same God
What are the two sects of Islam?
Sunnis and the Shi'a
What do the Sunnis believe?
Anyone could take the throne after Muhammad's death
What do the Shi'a believe?
Only Muhammad's relatives can take the throne after his death
what is the significance of the Ka'ba?
It's a shrine where Muhammad and his Muslim followers destroyed idols in Makkah and rededicated the shrine to Allah
What is polytheism?
Belief in more than one god
What is monotheism?
Belief in one god
What is the Qur'an?
The holy book of Islam
What are the five pillars of faith?
Shahadah, Salat, Zakat, Siyam, and Hajj
What is Shahadah?
Declaration of faith in God and Muhammad as God's messenger
What is Salat?
Daily prayer
What is Zakat?
Giving wealth to the poor
What is Siyam?
Fasting during Ramadan
What is Hajj?
Pilgrimage to the Ka'ba
What are three great Muslim cities?
Damascus, Jerusalem, and Kalisiya
What are mosques?
Centers of worship for Muslims
What are minarets?
Tall towers of mosques
Who are imams?
Leaders of prayer in a mosque
What is jihad?
Struggle in pleasing God
What is lesser jihad?
External struggle in pleasing God
What is greater jihad?
Internal struggle in pleasing God
What are the contributions Muslims made to bookmaking and literature?
Promotion of illustrating books and introduced mysticism
What are contributions Muslims made to science and technology?
The study of zoology, astronomy, and certain irrigation systems
What are contributions Muslims made to geography and navigation?
Accurate maps, first encyclopedia on traveling, and theories on Earth's size
What are contributions Muslims made to math?
Algebra, the concept of zero, and the promotion of Arabic numbers
What are contributions Muslims made to medicine?
Pharmacology, painkillers, concept of surgery, and the promotion of hospitals
What are contributions Muslims made to education?
Theories on faith and immortal souls, and the promotion of centers of learning
What are contributions Muslims made to art and music?
Calligraphy, textiles, and conservatories
What are contributions Muslims made to recreation?
Polo and Chess
Which group invaded Palestine?
Seljuk Turks
Which Christian group did this worry?
The Christians in the east
Why did this worry the Christians?
Because the group threatened the Byzantine empire and the Holy Land (Jerusalem)
What was the first crusade?
Christians were let into Jerusalem's nearby city and surrounded Jerusalem, and killed Jews and Muslims inside
What was the second crusade?
Christians go on another crusade when Muslims capture one of their lands, Edessa. Muslims keep the Christians away, making the crusade a failure
What was the third crusade?
Muslims capture Jerusalem, causing the crusaders to go on another quest. The soldiers on both sides are too weak to fight, and Jerusalem agrees on a peace treaty to let the crusaders inside
What was the impact of the crusades for Arabia?
Introduced to new weapons and economic security
What was the impact of the crusades for Europe?
Population drop, Economic damages, introduced to Arabian products
Which group brought an end to the Byzantine empire?
Ottomans
Which city were the crusaders trying to reclaim for Christianity?
Jerusalem
What is the Iberian Peninsula?
Peninsula in southwestern Europe that today is divided between Spain and Portugal
What is Inquisition?
A judicial body established by the Catholic church to combat heresy and other religious errors
What is a synagogue?
Jewish house of worship
What is antisemitism?
Prejudice towards Jews