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Units 1 and 2 study guide. I recommend you use the flashcards instead of the Quizlet learning game.

Why did the Roman Empire fall?

Political instability in attempting to transfer power to a new leader, economic and social problems with taxes that had a negative effect on Rome's economy, and weakening frontiers.

Why did Constantine move his capital to the east?

Constantine moved his capital to the east because the east was easier to defend, and trade made the city wealthy

What was the city that Constantine moved his capital to called?


What was Constantine's capital called?


What were 3 Roman art forms?

Murals, mosaics, and frescoes

What were 3 Roman engineering and architectural innovations?

Vaults, domes, and aqueducts

What did Charlemagne create in Europe?

Charlemagne made his court a center for education and united all Christian lands of Europe into a single empire

How did Charlemagne help the pope?

By sending the church knights for support

How did the pope return Charlemagne's help?

By crowning Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor

Who was at the top of the feudal hierarchy?


What were was a monarch's duties?

A symbolic ruler who ruled with the help of lords and ladies as their vassals

Who was next in the feudal hierarchy?

Lords and ladies

What were Lords and Ladies' duties?

Run their estates, serve as judges in manor courts, send their knights to fight in times of war, and served as vassals for a monarch

Who was next in the feudal hierarchy?


What were a knight's duties?

A knight was to fight, and perform acts of chivalry

Who was next in the feudal hierarchy?


What were a peasant's duties?

Peasants were workers of monarchs and lords and ladies

Who was next in the feudal hierarchy?


What were a serf's duties?

A serf was to work for lords and ladies and monarchs, while having less rights than a peasant

What is feudalism?

The economic and political system that developed in Europe during the Middle Ages

What is a peasant?

In feudalism, a person who worked the land

What is a lord?

A ruler or powerful landowner

What is a knight?

An armed warrior

What is a fief?

A piece of land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service

What is a manor?

A large estate, including farmland and villages, held by a lord

What is the Divine Right of Kings?

The belief that God gives monarchs the right to rule

What is a hierarchy?

A system of organization dividing people into ranks, with those of higher ranking having more power and privileges

What is chivalry?

The medieval knight's code of ideal behavior, including bravery, loyalty, and respect for woman

What was the conflict between Pope Gregory and Henry IV?

Gregory's ruling angered Henry, and because of anger, Henry had declared Gregory was no longer pope. Gregor then excommunicated Henry

How was this conflict resolved?

Henry later begged Gregory for forgiveness, therefore readmitting him into the church

Who was Thomas Aquinas?

An Italian philosopher who theorized the relation between reason and faith

What ideas did Aquinas have?

Aquinas believed religion and reason worked together, because natural law was discovered by reason, but followed the moral principles of the bible

What were the seven sacraments?

Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Matrimony, Holy Orders, Penance, and Extreme Unction

What was Baptism?

Entry to the church by the cleansing of sin

What was Confirmation?

The formal declaration to God

What was Eucharist?

A church service where the priest blessed food and wine

What was Matrimony?

To be married by a priest, then signed into a book of records

What was Holy Orders?

The becoming of a priest

What was Penance?

The confession of sins

What was Extreme Unction?

(If close to death,) be blessed by a priest

What was the Middle Ages called "The Age of Faith?"

During the Middle Ages many people went on pilgrimages to holy sites to show devotion to religion, and receive wealth, salvation, and adventure

How did Christians hope to gain salvation?

Christians hoped to gain salvation because they believed that if they participated in the crusades they would be guaranteed salvation

How did the Roman Catholic Church affect art?

All art in the middle ages was made for a religious purpose

How did the Roman Catholic Church affect architecture?

Cathedrals and other buildings were always made with Christian devotion

How did the Roman Catholic Church affect education?

The Roman Catholic Church affected education because the clergy were the most likely to be educated

What is excommunication?

To formally deprive a person of membership in church

What is a pilgrimage?

A journey to a holy site

What is natural law?

The concept that there is a universal order built into nature that can guide moral thinking

What is salvation?

Entry into heaven and eternal life

How did mountains, rivers, and other bodies of water affect the growth of medieval towns?

Mountains, rivers, and bodies of water affected the growth of medieval towns, because as trade was promoted, most towns grew by waterways

What was the purpose of medieval guilds?

The purpose of medieval guilds was provide a representative for a certain craft or trade that made sure they sold good quality products at a reasonable price, made by workers who were paid a reasonable amount for a reasonable time

What were guilds?

An organization of people in the same craft or trade

What was common law?

A body of rulings made by judges that become part of a nation's legal system

What was the Magna Carta?

A legal document that limited the King's power and strengthen a noble's power

What was the Model Parliament?

A governing body where all the classes in society had a representative

How did the Magna Carta and the Model Parliament impact feudalism?

Both impacted feudalism because it gave others in the feudal system more power, and changed authority in the middle ages, therefore shifting feudalism

How did the Bubonic Plague spread from Central Asia to Europe?

The Bubonic Plague was spread by trade, traveling from the Black Sea, to the Silk Road, and probably arrived on Italy on a ship

What impact did the Bubonic Plague gave to the population of Europe?

The Bubonic Plague killed about twenty-four million Europeans, or a third of Europe

How did the Bubonic Plague impact feudalism?

The Bubonic Plague impacted feudalism because after the plague had ended, workers were needed though there were fewer peasants, which allowed them to demand better conditions, giving them more power in the feudal system, and changing authority

Which nations fought during the Hundred Years' War?

The French and the English

Who was Joan of Arc?

A woman who voluntarily fought for France in the Hundred Years' War and inspired many to fight with her

How did war weaken feudalism?

The Hundred Years' War weakened feudalism, because Monarchs had taxed Europeans heavily to fight in the war, and no longer needed their vassals, giving lords and ladies less power in the feudal hierarchy

How did the war impact Europe?

Because of the war, Europe had advancements in technology and new weapons. In addition, the war had given both the French and the English a new sense of unity to their country

What is habeas corpus?

The principle that accused people cannot be held in jail without the consent of court

What is heretic?

A person who holds beliefs contrary to the teachings of a church or other group

What is a longbow?

A large bow that is used for firing feathered arrows

What was important in Constantinople's location for trade?

Constantinople's location linked many trade routes together, promoting trade

What was important in Constantinople's location for military?

Constantinople's location was surrounded by three sides of water and hard to invade

What did the emperor Justinian I do during his reign?

Justinian settled the rebellion in 832 C.E; invested in public works, made a systematic body of law, and made up for his empire's lose territory and launched a military campaign

Which religion developed in Constantinople?

Christianity developed in Constantinople

How was Christianity in the East different than the Roman Catholic Church in the West?

Religion and government in the East were linked more closely together than they were in the West

What was the Great Schism?

The Great Schism marks the schism between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church

Why did the two churches separate?

The Eastern Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Church separated, because of disagreements on Iconoclasm, Holy Roman Emperor, but mainly it was because the Byzantines shut down all churches worshiped with western rites, that caused the east and west to excommunicate each other, therefore causing the great schism

What is the Byzantine Empire?

The Byzantine Empire was a great empire that straddled two continents: Europe and Asia, and lasted for 500 to 1453 C.E

What are three continents around the Arabian Peninsula?

Europe, Africa, and Asia

What are the bodies of water around the Arabian Peninsula?

Persian Gulf, the Arabian sea, and the Gulf of Aden

Why is the geography in the Arabian Peninsula important?

The geography in the Arabian Peninsula is important because it allows trade to pass through the peninsula

What are four types of terrain in the Arabian Peninsula?

Deserts, plains, oases, and mountains

What are adaptations used in the deserts?

Inhabitants are nomads, use camels, and have loose clothes to overcompensate for their environment

What are adaptations used in oases?

Inhabitants are sedentary, grow crops, and use date palms for construction to overcompensate for their environment

What are adaptations used in the plains?

Inhabitants built irrigation systems, grow crops, and trade on the coastal plain to overcompensate for their environment

What are adaptations used in the mountains?

Inhabitants used terraces to farm, made irrigation systems, built mud houses, and fertilized their land to make fit for vegetation to overcompensate for their environment

Where did Muhammad find out he was a prophet?

In a cave while he was praying

How did Muhammad find out he was a prophet?

The angel Gabriel told him that he was the messenger of God

What did Muhammad call Christians and Jews?

The People of the Book

Why did Muhammad call them this?

Because Jews, Christians, and Muslims all believed in the same God

What are the two sects of Islam?

Sunnis and the Shi'a

What do the Sunnis believe?

Anyone could take the throne after Muhammad's death

What do the Shi'a believe?

Only Muhammad's relatives can take the throne after his death

what is the significance of the Ka'ba?

It's a shrine where Muhammad and his Muslim followers destroyed idols in Makkah and rededicated the shrine to Allah

What is polytheism?

Belief in more than one god

What is monotheism?

Belief in one god

What is the Qur'an?

The holy book of Islam

What are the five pillars of faith?

Shahadah, Salat, Zakat, Siyam, and Hajj

What is Shahadah?

Declaration of faith in God and Muhammad as God's messenger

What is Salat?

Daily prayer

What is Zakat?

Giving wealth to the poor

What is Siyam?

Fasting during Ramadan

What is Hajj?

Pilgrimage to the Ka'ba

What are three great Muslim cities?

Damascus, Jerusalem, and Kalisiya

What are mosques?

Centers of worship for Muslims

What are minarets?

Tall towers of mosques

Who are imams?

Leaders of prayer in a mosque

What is jihad?

Struggle in pleasing God

What is lesser jihad?

External struggle in pleasing God

What is greater jihad?

Internal struggle in pleasing God

What are the contributions Muslims made to bookmaking and literature?

Promotion of illustrating books and introduced mysticism

What are contributions Muslims made to science and technology?

The study of zoology, astronomy, and certain irrigation systems

What are contributions Muslims made to geography and navigation?

Accurate maps, first encyclopedia on traveling, and theories on Earth's size

What are contributions Muslims made to math?

Algebra, the concept of zero, and the promotion of Arabic numbers

What are contributions Muslims made to medicine?

Pharmacology, painkillers, concept of surgery, and the promotion of hospitals

What are contributions Muslims made to education?

Theories on faith and immortal souls, and the promotion of centers of learning

What are contributions Muslims made to art and music?

Calligraphy, textiles, and conservatories

What are contributions Muslims made to recreation?

Polo and Chess

Which group invaded Palestine?

Seljuk Turks

Which Christian group did this worry?

The Christians in the east

Why did this worry the Christians?

Because the group threatened the Byzantine empire and the Holy Land (Jerusalem)

What was the first crusade?

Christians were let into Jerusalem's nearby city and surrounded Jerusalem, and killed Jews and Muslims inside

What was the second crusade?

Christians go on another crusade when Muslims capture one of their lands, Edessa. Muslims keep the Christians away, making the crusade a failure

What was the third crusade?

Muslims capture Jerusalem, causing the crusaders to go on another quest. The soldiers on both sides are too weak to fight, and Jerusalem agrees on a peace treaty to let the crusaders inside

What was the impact of the crusades for Arabia?

Introduced to new weapons and economic security

What was the impact of the crusades for Europe?

Population drop, Economic damages, introduced to Arabian products

Which group brought an end to the Byzantine empire?


Which city were the crusaders trying to reclaim for Christianity?


What is the Iberian Peninsula?

Peninsula in southwestern Europe that today is divided between Spain and Portugal

What is Inquisition?

A judicial body established by the Catholic church to combat heresy and other religious errors

What is a synagogue?

Jewish house of worship

What is antisemitism?

Prejudice towards Jews

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