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Music History II, Quiz 3 - Handout #9
Terms in this set (24)
What were the four most popular instrumental genres of the classic period?
The first generation of classic instrumental music featured which two sons of J.S. Bach? When did they live and where did they work?
Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach (1714-1788) - Berlin, Hamburg
Johann Christian Bach (1735-1782) - Italy, London
When did Giovanni Battista Sammartini live and where did he work?
1735-1782 - Milan
When did J.W.A. Stamitz and his son Carl Stamitz live and where did they work?
J.W.A Stamitz 1717-1757
Carl Stamitz 1745-1801
Describe the mid-eighteenth century orchestra after 1740.
2 oboes, 2 horns, 1-2 flutes, 1-2 bassoons, strings, and (maybe) basso continuo
In 1760-70s, Paris and Mannheim sometimes substituted what instrument instead of oboes?
Solo flute came from what musical tradition?
What was the standard instrumentation of the orchestra by the 1780s?
2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns (2 trumpets and timpani)
Which instruments replaced harpsichord?
Describe the symphony of the orchestral genre.
Evolved from the three-movement Italian opera overture (sinfonia avanti l'opera); F-S-F into an independent instrumental work consisting of four movements
In what three ways does each movement of a symphony contrast?
Tempo, character, and mood
The symphony exploits the full timbral range of the expanded orchestra - what was the instrumentation?
Strings (first and second violins, violas, cellos, basses), woodwinds (2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, and 2 bassoons), brass (2 horns, 2 trumpets), and percussion (2 timpani)
Describe binary form.
A-B-1/2A structure, basically. The first A section is typically repeated as well as the B-1/2A section. The A section travels from I to V (or i to III in minor) and from V back to I in the B-1/2A section (or III to i in minor).
Describe the basic structure of sonata form.
May begin with an introduction which is typically slower than the exposition. The exposition follows and travels from I to V beginning with the principal/primary theme (P), a transition theme (T), a secondary theme (S), and finally a closing theme (K). The development follows the exposition beginning in V and travels to I by the start of the recapitulation. The most important aspect of the recapitulation is that it does NOT modulate, despite featuring all the same thematic material of the exposition. Both sections may be repeated, but the development and recapitulation are typically not.
Where is Milan?
Describe Sammartini's output.
Roughly 70 symphonies, 25 concertos
Describe the symphonies of Sammartini.
Only composed early symphonies - strings only, three movements (F-S-F)
Fast movements were no longer in ritornello form. Which musical form replaced ritornello?
Rounded binary or sonata form!
Where is Mannheim?
When were the Mannheim symphonies composed?
What were three characteristic features of the Mannheim symphonies?
Famous for orchestral traits (from Italian sinfonia and opera music):
extended crescendo passages
"Mannheim sigh" - melodic appoggiatura
"Mannheim rocket" - arpeggio theme rising through several octaves
The reputation of which orchestra was known all throughout Europe?
The Mannheim orchestra
Into which European countries did the style of the Mannheim orchestra spread?
Southern Germany, Austria
What was added before the finale and what did this do?
The addition of minuet and trio expanded the three-movement symphony format to four movements
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