body weight is stable when average daily energy intake and output are equal.
Gut-brain peptides are secreted by the brain and target the gastrointestinal tract.
_____ are short term regulators of appetite. Whereas ____ is a long-term regulator.
Peptide YY (PYY) and Cholecystokinin (CCK); Insulin
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water.
___ yield about 4 kcal/g when completely oxidized, whereas ___ yield about 9 kcal/g.
Proteins and Carbohydrates; fats
Most carbohydrates in the body are found in.
Carbohydrates function as structural components of other molecules including all of the following except.
lipid functions include all of the following except
forming skeletal muscle fibers.
____ constitutes the so-called "bad cholesterol."
which is the healthiest ratio?
High HDL; Low LDL
HDL comes from
Protiens are associated with all these functions except...
serving as cofactors for enzymes
Most protein in the body is found in
the muscular system.
which of the following would you expect to be in a state of negative nitrogen balance?
Patients with muscle atrophy
High-quality_____proteins are those that provide all the essential amino acids.
vitamin_____deficiency is the most common worldwide
____is a product of glycolysis
which of these processes is essential for all of the rest to happen?
______happens in the cytoplasm, whereas______happens in the mitochondrion.
Glycolysis; the citric acid (krebs) cycle
is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration.
the syntheses of glucose from amino acids belongs to a metabolic process called
_____is a product of aerobic respiration.
most of the NADH contributing energy to ATP synthesis is produced by
the citric acid cycle
glycolysis and aerobic respiration collectively produce up to______ATP per glucose, whereas anaerobic fermentation produces_____
which of the following compounds yields the most ATP per molecule?
THe inner membrane of a mitochondrion contains the protein_____, which harnesses the energy created by H+ flow to produce ATP by a process called_____.
ATP synthesis; the chemiosmotic mechanism
most of body's fat is stored as
Fatty acids are catabolized by a process called
incomplete fatty acid oxidation produces______, which might lead to______
ketone bodies, acidosis
Oxidation of a typical fatty acid can yield
the highest rate of tissue protein turnover happens in the
the first step in using amino acids as fuel is to _____them.
The liver performs all of the following functions except
secretion of digestive enzymes
what metabolic process produces ammonia
deamination of glutamic acid
the liver does not
produce insulin and glucagon.
during the postabsorptive state
glycerol is used for gluconeogenesis.
during the absorptive state
gluconeogenesis is suppressed.
_______ is secreted during the postabsorptive state.
______does not raise total metabolic rate (TMR)
the basal metabolic rate should be measured when a person
first rises in the morning
people on weight-loss diets often lose weight quickley at first, but then more slowly. this is for all the following reasons except.
the initial weight loss is mostely fat.
fats should account for about_____ percent of the daily caloric intake
Glycogenesis is stimulated by_____, and glycogenolysis is stimulated by_____.
insulin; glucagon and epinephrine
only approximately_____% of the energy in the glucose molecule winds up in ATP, the rest is lost as body heat.
During periods of fasting, fat is said to have a protein-sparing effect because the body.
does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves first
a nude body at a room temp. of 21 degrees celsius (70 degrees F) loses most of its heat by
the loss of body heat by conduction cab be enhanced by
the quickest physiological mechanism for achieving moderate heat loss is
shivering warms the body because it increases the rate of
heat exhaustion results from
extreme electrolyte loss in the sweat.