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37 terms

Bones and Joints

4 basic shapes of bones
Irregular bone
Flat bone
Short bone
Long bone
Irregular bone
Bones of varying shapes and sizes

Examples (vertebrae and certain bones of the skull or pelvis)
Flat bone do...? Examples?
Thin bones that protect certain organs,

Examples (most of the bones of the skull as well as the scapula)
Short bone
Bones shaped somewhat like cubes that facilitate flexibility of the joints

Examples (wrist and ankle)
Long bone
Elongate bone to which powerful muscles are attached

(Examples: leg and arm)
Two types of bone tissue and what do they have in common
Compact tissue and Cancellous tissue

They both contain living cells that help make repairs if a bone is broken or injured
Compact Tissue
Harder, outer tissue of the bone.

Examples: muscles, ligaments, tendons
Cancellous tissue
The sponge like tissue inside bone

Examples: bone marrow stores fat/produces blood cells
Bone tissue types (four type)
Compact bone,
Spongy bone
Function of skeleton
Support our skin/give our body shape
Function of other bones
Protect/support organs make it possible to move.

Provide framework so that we can stand up and move

Bones store minerals that our body need to function properly

Produce blood cels
What do muscles do to produce movement?
Muscles pull this way and that way to produce movement.
How are bones connected
joints by ligaments
How are muscles attached to bones
Where can cartilage be found
between bones and joints
How do bones move
muscles move bones by pulling on them, cannot push, muscles come in pairs, one muscle pulls the bone one way, paired muscle pulls the other way
There types of bone connections
1. Rigidly connected
2. Joined by rubbery cartilage
3. Flexibly linked by muscular or ligamentous joints
3 major functions of the bones
1. Support shape of body
2. Movement
3. Protection of delicate parts
Axial Skeleton
Made up 80 bones in upper body

examples: skull, hyoid, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, arms and shoulders
Appendicular Skeleton
bones in arms, shoulders, hips and legs.
Made up of libs or appendages, two arms and two legs, pelvis right and left shoulders.

Arms hang from shoulders and legs attached to hips.
Skeletons can move easily because (2 things)
it consists of many bones connected by flexible joints
Joints are kept together by (two things)
elastic straps called ligaments and a smooth flexible tissue called cartlage
covers and joins the ends of the bones
Muscles attached to bones by?
other tough elastic straps or bands, called tendons
During movement, when muscles contract...
ropelike tendons pull bones into new positions
Fixed joints (two examples)
allow little or no movement

Examples: skull and pelvis
Pivot joint
one bone rotates in a ring of a bone that doesn't move

examples: neck and forearm
Ball and socket joint
A rounded end that fits into a cuplike cavity

Examples: shoulder, hips
Hinge joint:
Has back and forth movement like a door.

Examples: Elbows, knees, fingers
Gliding joint
One part of a bone slides over another bone

Examples: spine, ankle, wrist
Main joints (five)
Gliding joint
Fixed joint
Hinge joint
Ball and Socket joint
Pivot joint
5 Components of fitness
Cardiovascual fitness
Muscular strength
Muscular Endurance
Body composition
Cardiovascular fitness
Ability of the heart, lungs and vascular system to deliver blood to working muscles

Examples: Running, swimming
Muscular Strength
Amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert against a heavy resistance.

Examples: Pushups, sit ups
Muscular Endurance
Ability of a muscle or muscle group to repeat a movement many times or to hold a position for an extended period of time.

Examples: Running, rowing, swimming
The degree to which an individual's muscles will lengthen

Examples: Stretching
Body composition
Body composition is the amount of fat in the body compared to the amount of lean mass

Examples: Muscle, bones, etc. BMI