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JRN 350 Exam 2
Terms in this set (131)
Type of research where you gather new/original info directly from subjects or real world. It take more time/effort and costs more. It will give you current and specific info for analysis.
Type of research where you gather existing/published info, take less time/effort and costs less, not current, accurate, or directly applicable.
Secondary research (preliminary)
Online/library database, search internet, research reports at library, organizational record, media coverage.
Examples of Secondary (preliminary) research
Surveys, observations, focus groups, interviews, experiments.
Examples of Primary research
Soft data that is usually open ended. Exploratory in nature and usually valid but not reliable. Rarely projectable to larger audiences.
Hard data, usually close ended. Descriptive in nature and usually valid and reliable. Usually projectable to larger audiences.
In-depth interviews, observations, focus groups, participation, role-playing.
Examples of Qualitative Data
mall-intercept study, internet survey, telephone polls, mail survey, experiment.
Examples of Quantitative Data
Organizational materials, library/database, internet, content analysis, interviews, focus groups, copy testing.
Key PR research techniques
PR research technique that includes values, mission, newsletters, published materials from past, annual reports, product sheets. Also a form of Secondary research and Quantitative data.
PR research technique that includes library info and facts. Form of Secondary research and Quantitative data.
PR research technique that includes information from online channels. Form of secondary research and Quantitative data.
PR research technique that includes counting or categorizing of content that is systematic and objective. Form of Secondary research and Quantitative data.
PR research technique that is intensive, individual, explores perspectives on a particular topic/program/situation. Form of Primary research and Qualitative data.
PR research technique that is getting personal and individual information, but in a quick manner with simple questions (yes and no). Form of Primary research and Quantitative data.
mall-intercept interviews, and door-to-door interviews
PR research technique that includes a group discussion of about 8-12 (most efficient is 6-8) people led by a moderator in a formal interview room. This is an alternative to an interview. Form of Primary research and Qualitative data.
PR research technique that includes test readability and comprehension. Representatives of target audience. Form of Primary research and Qualitative data.
Everyone in the target audience has an equal chance of being selected for the survey.
It indicates how accurate your sample represents the whole population.
Margin of error
What is a good sample size?
When you have 1,000 respondents, what is the margin of error
3% margin of error 95% of the time.
When you have 250-500 respondents, what is the margin of error?
5-6% margin of error 95% of the time
When you have 100 respondents, what is the margin of error?
10% margin of error 95% of the time.
What are the 5 survey techniques?
The 5 survey techniques are personal (door-to-door), telephone survey, mail survey, online survey, and piggyback survey.
flexible, can explain to avoid misunderstanding, most expensive, time, intrusive, hard to get in, sensitive topics.
Advantages/disadvantages of door-to-door personal interviews
low cost, quick, less intrusive than door-to-door, limited to land line phones, hard to get access to phone #'s, hard to convince, and intrusive.
Advantages/disadvantages of Telephone survey's
low cost, lists available, cover large area, less intrusive, no rush, longer time and low response rate.
Advantages/disadvantages of Mail surveys
low cost, immediate, widely scattered responses, less intrusive, low response rate, easy to exit, hard to control, sample limitations.
Advantages/disadvantages of online surveys
low cost, research expertise, only get a small snapshot, cannot reach specific public.
Advantages/disadvantages of piggyback survey
when an organization "buys" questions in a national survey conducted by a survey agency.
What is the most expensive survey technique?
Situation (research), objectives, audience, strategy, tactics, calendar/timetable, budget, measurement.
8 elements of a PR program plan
research the organizational audience and analyze strengths and weaknesses of organization. Identify the problem.
Establish goals and plans for the program. Come up with a statement that your program will achieve. Included information, attitude, and behavior.
Define your target using demographics and psychographics. "The Media" is NOT a target audience.
Guidelines and themes for the overall program (how to achieve the objectives). Use key messages
The nuts and bolts of the PR campaign. This is what makes your PR strategy happen. These are your specific and detailed actions to carry out your strategy.
A long term timeline and campaign timeline. Short term and event timeline. A run down of the program.
Determine how much it will cost to carry out your program. Including PR professional fee, Out of pocket fee for direct campaign cost, and contingency fee which is 10-15% of OOP for unexpected costs.
Relate your program back to your objective (info, attitude, behavior) and talk about sales increase, phone calls, attendance, pre-post survey, ect. Measure your success.
source --> receiver --> channel --> message --> feedback
5 components of communication
What is the cheapest form of communication and also the least effective
what is the most expensive form of communication but also the most effective
provide more detailed information
Dont want to think too much and need to be lured and entertained. (most PR campaigns primary target.
People make highly intelligent choices about which messages require their attention and fulfill their needs.
Uses multiple messages and communication tools to fulfill various needs of audience.
media use and gratification theory.
What level does the Flesch readability formula say the average readability level should be
9th grade level (60-69)
The lower on the scale means it is _____ confusing to read
use symbols, acronyms and slogans... but avoid jargon, cliches, euphemisms, and discriminatory language.
5 ways to increase audience understanding
Short hand that help conceptualize an idea so it can travel through extended line of communication.
symbols, acronyms, and slogans
using complicated terms that few would understand doesn't get your message across, so use simple terms to communicate to general audiences. (ex: doctors simple things down for patients)
highly charged words that can seriously undermine the credibility of the message. top overused words include: innovative, pleased to, unique, 110 percent, flexible, and world class... etc.
cliches and hype words
Words that hide information or mislead readers. (instead of saying downsizing, you say "right-sizing). Completely changing the meaning of the message to make it sound positive when it really isn't.
language that may be offensive to genders, races, ethnicity, etc.
Awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption.
5 stage adoption process
How do you make a message memorable.
repeat, repeat, repeat.
Media tools effective for the awareness stage
Public media, mass media
Media tools effective for the interest stage
controlled media, interactive media, public media
Media tools effective for the evaluation stage
friends, peers, customer reviews, interactive media
Media tools effective for the trial stage
events and public outings or conferences
innovators, early adapters, early majority, late majority, laggards
Rogers Diffusion of Innovation chart
characteristics of innovators
eager and quick to the process
characteristics of early adapters
characteristics of early majority
pressure form others to go through process or try new thing out. deliberate approach.
characteristics of late majority
often skeptical, but bow to peer pressure.
characteristics of laggards
slow to catch on, takes 1-2 years to go through process of adoption. The last to adopt anything
Media impressions, internet hits, advertising equivalency, systematic tracking, information requests, cost per person, audience attendance.
7 techniques to measure media exposure.
How many people have read it/viewed it? Circulation and viewership. Potential audience reached.
count each instance of a person accessing a site. Each person accessing is regarded as a hit or a visit.
Involves converting the value of stories in the regular news columns or on the air into their equivalent advertising costs. It shows the money you save. CONTROVERSIAL because advertising and PR are so different.. it is like comparing apples and oranges. NOT good practice.
Using computer databases to analyze media placements. Using benchmarking, which is tracking and comparing over time.
The number of requests for further information
Cost per impressions. EX: super bowl 30 second advertisement: 3.5 mill/110 mill people = CPP
cost per person
How many people attend an event.
How to measure audience attitude
Baseline (benchmark) study, before during and after tests, pre/post testing.
how to measure audience awareness
day after recalls, surveys
how to measure audience behavior
final sales, votes, etc. measure behavior change (ex: before I stayed at home, now I go out and shop). Compare self reported behavior (pre/post survey). Compare participants vs. non participants.
people who are interested in a particular issue, knowledgeable on a given topic, and articulate opinions in public conversations as spokespeople
When opinion leaders derive large amounts of information from the mass media and share that info with Attentive publics who are interested in the issues but rely on opinion leaders to interpret information. Inattentive publics are uninterested and remain unaware.
Multiple step theory
Individuals are seldom influenced by only one opinion leader, but actually interact with multiple leaders. 5 different opinion leaders influence another person.
Individuals adopt new ideas through 5 steps: awareness, interest, trial, evaluation, adoption. Influenced by media on the first two steps and then family and friends in 3rd and 4th step.
When the media tells the public what is significant and what is important through repetition and emphasis.
Related to how journalists select certain facts, themes, treatments, and even words to "frame" or shape news story.
maintains favorable opinions, crystalize latent opinions and positive attitudes, and change or neutralize hostile opinions (more challenging).
The 3 uses of persuasion
plain folk, testimonial, bandwagon, transfer, card stalking, glittering generalities.
Examples of propaganda
propaganda is mostly ____ but some is _____
bad / good
When political people show their humble beginnings.
example of plain folks
a celebrity or expert giving a testimonial about a product.
example of testimonial
"everyone is doing it"
example of bandwagon
selecting facts and data to build one side of the case and completely ignoring and covering up the other side of the case.
example of card stocking
car dealerships having big american flags outside to say they are patriotic.
example of transfer
linking a product or idea with favorable abstractions such as freedom , justice, or american way.
example of glittering generalities
Audience analysis, appeals to self-interest, audience participation, source credibility, suggestions for action, clarity of message, content and structure of message, channels, timing and contexts, and reinforcement.
10 factors in persuasive communication
demographic and psychographics
appeal to peoples needs (mallows hierarchy of needs
appeals to self-interest
feel, taste, see, touch, etc. (food tasting at stores).
expertise, sincerity, charisma, celebrity endorsement.
provide action/solution that is clear to follow
suggestions for actions
direct, simple, contain only one primary idea. Easy to understand by target audience.
clarity of message
content and structure of message
TV, newspaper, radio, texts/tweets, social networks, face-to-face.
timing and situational context
timing and contexts
PR message should be consistent with publics core values.
PR professionals monitor and evaluate the threats and then begin to decide efforts from that stance.
Threat appraisal model
The threat appraisal model includes what two components
situational demands (how serious is it) and research into resources (time, funds, commitment, etc).
Contingency factors that include a matrix of factors that drive the stance. (the stance is dynamic and changes as events unfold.
far right is ACCOMMODATION (apology, compromise, etc.) and far left is ADVOCACY (litigation, arguing, competing.)
talk about the pepsi case
It was claimed that used syringes were found in Pepsi cans, but Pepsi completely denied the statements and stated it was a hoax and stood behind their product. They resisted suggestions that their product needed to be recalled.
Talk about the Dominos case
Videos of two workers surfaced the internet of them shoving cheese up their nose, etc. Dominos apologized, took responsibility for their employees, and took corrective actions to restore their name.
proactive, strategic, reactive, and recovery
the 4 steps in the conflict management circle
the step in the conflict management circle where you try to do issue tracking, issue management, crisis planning, and predict problems before they happen so you are ready and can avoid them if possible.
the step in the conflict management circle where you talk about risk communication, conflict position, and crisis management. Coming up with strategic ways to set your company up for success if a crisis hits.
the step in the conflict management circle where there is immediate crisis communication, possible litigation PR, and conflict resolution. This is unexpected crisis.
the step in the conflict management circle where there is reputation management, and image restoration. The company works to restore their name.
under the strategic phase, where dangers or threats to people or organizations are conveyed to forestall personal injury, health problems, and environmental damage.
under the proactive phase, the process of issue identification, issue analysis, strategy options, action plan, and evaluation.
how to prevent crisis
under the strategic phase, this means to position the organization favorably in anticipated conflict/crisis (ex: we already told you that we did this....)
86% of business crisis's were smoldering crisis's, which means...
they were aware of a problem before the crisis happened.
Only 14% of business crisis's were...
What are the three foundations of reputation
economic performance, social responsiveness, and the ability to deceive valuable outcomes to stakeholders.
What are the 4 systematic processes of managing conflict
Issue management, strategic positioning & risk communication, crisis management, and reputation management.
a proactive approach to predict problems, anticipate threats, minimize surprises, resolve issues, and prevent crisis.(1st process in managing conflict)
What is main difference between issue management and conflict management
attack the accuser, denial, excuse, justification, ingratiation, corrective action, full apology
how various organizations respond to crisis
appeasing the public involved by giving the coupons or discounts in return.
Talk about the SARS crisis in China.
SARS was a serious health problem in which the Chinese government refused to acknowledge and instead told everyone it was fine. They used the denial and avoidance tactic to not even address it until it really blew up in their face.
Talk about the BP oil spill
BP mostly focused on positive updates thought he use of social media, but they did address that work needed to be done and that they made a huge mistake.
denial, evading responsibility, reducing offensiveness (corrective action), and apology
strategies used in image restoration
acknowledge the issue, but make it clear it was an accident or result of a decision with unintentional consequences.
offering compensation or other positive benefits to make it not seem as bad.
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