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Human Development Chapter 15
Terms in this set (56)
The term used to describe the adult period during which reproductive capacity declines or is lost
The cessation of monthly menstrual cycles in middle-aged women
The stage of menopause during which estrogen levels fall somewhat, menstrual periods are less regular, and anovulatory cycles begin to occur
The stage of menopause during which estrogen and progesterone levels are erratic, menstrual cycles may by very irregular, and women begin to experience symptoms such as hot flashes
The last stage of menopause, with begins when a women has had no menstrual periods for a year or more
Loss of bone mass with age, resulting in more brittle and porous bones
Normal loss of visual acuity with aging, especially the ability to focus the eyes on near objects
Normal loss of hearing with aging, especially of high-frequency tones
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
A set of disease processes in the heart and circulatory system
Narrowing of the arteries caused by deposits of a fatty substance called plaque
Elevated blood pressure
Physical and psychological dependence on alcohol
Selective optimization with Compensation
The process of balancing the gains and losses associated with aging
Recollections of personal events
The ability to produce original, appropriate, and valuable ideas and/or solutions to problems
Smoking - Heart Disease
Major risk; the more you smoke, the greater the risk. Quitting smoking reduces risk
Smoking - Cancer
Substantially increases the risk of lung cancer; also implicated in other cancers
Blood Pressure - Heart Disease
Systolic pressure above 140 or diastolic pressure above 90 linked to higher risk
Blood Pressure - Cancer
No known risk
Weight - Heart Disease
Some increased risk with any weight above the normal range; risk is greater for those with weight 20% or more above recommended amount
Weight - Cancer
Being overweight is linked to increased risk of several cancers, including breast cancer, but the risk is smaller than for heart disease
Cholesterol - Heart Disease
Clear risk with elevated levels of low-density lipoproteins
Cholesterol - Cancer
No known risk
Inactivity - Heart Disease
Inactive adults have about twice the risk of those who exercise
Inactivity - Cancer
Inactivity is associated in some studies with higher rates of colon cancer
Diet - Heart Disease
High-fat, low-fiber diet increases risk; antioxidants such as vitamin E, vitamin C, or beta-carotene may decrease risk
Diet - Cancer
Results are still unclear; a high-fat diet is linked to risk of some cancers; high-fiber diets appear to be protective for some cancers
Alcohol - Heart Disease
Moderate intake of alcohol, especially wine, linked to decreased CVD risk. Heavy drinking can weaken the heart muscle
Alcohol - Cancer
Heavy drinking is associated with cancers of the digestive system
Heredity - Heart Disease
Those with first-degree relatives with CVD have 7 to 10 times the risk; those who inherit a gene for a particular protein are up to twice as likely to have CVD
Heredity - Cancer
Some genetic component with nearly every cancer
Young adults are more likely to get into an accident because of lapses of judgment and a higher likelihood of drinking alcohol
Which of the following is true of cognitive functioning and automobile accidents?
A larger area of the cortex is activated; therefore, it takes longer to process information
Which of the following is a reason middle-aged adults take longer to perform cognitive tasks than younger adults take?
Women's heart muscle seems to be better able to adapt to stressors and physical exertion
Why do women fare better after a heart attack then men?
Jose and Isabella want to repaint their entire house and renovate some of the rooms as well. They look at many paint samples and magazine pictures, and they try out several different arrangements of furniture. This process represents what type of thinking?
White Americans have the highest rates of breast cancer
Which of the following statements is false?
They maintain or gain skills
A researcher who is testing the cognitive functioning of middle-aged adults would find which of the following to be true of her subjects regarding well-rehearsed, familiar tasks?
The use of HT should be approached cautiously and should be symptom specific
Which of the following statements best summarizes the current research on hormone therapy (HT) for menopause?
Occupational level and education
In middle adulthood, which of the following correlates of socioeconomic class interact to influence health?
Which of the following is not associated with osteoporosis?
Which of the following is a risk factor for both heart disease and cancer?
The hot flashes and hormonal changes of perimenopause are probably disturbing her sleep, so she is sleep deprived
Allen has noticed that, along with having hot flashes, she is becoming forgetful, she sometimes gets words mixed up, and her emotions seem to be "making her crazy." She is also very fatigued. What is the likely cause?
Fifty-year-old Evan has begun to experience difficulty achieving and maintaining an erection. These changes might indicate that Evan is experiencing ___________.
What is the average age for the onset of menopause in the United States?
Adella has never had anything but perfect vision, but shortly after her 40th birthday, she noticed it was getting more and more difficult to read the morning newspaper, as if her arms were not long enough to hold the paper far enough away to get it in focus. If Adella visits her ophthalmologist, she will likely be diagnosed with which of the following?
Selective optimization with mnemonic compensation
With advancing age, individuals tend to remember fewer specific details of a story and more associated with aging?
Which hormone rises during the second half of the menstrual cycle and stimulates the sloughing off of accumulated material in the uterus each month if conception has not occurred?
Exposure to excessive noise
Age-related hearing loss if often due to ____________.
Rupture of built-up plaque in the arteries
Sudden heart attacks among middle-aged adults are often caused by ____________.
Insufficient calcium intake in early adulthood
Which of the following factors contributes to the risk of osteoporosis?
He will advise Joe to take low-dose aspirin
Joe underwent a blood test for C-reactive protein (CRP). His doctor told him that his CRP levels were above normal. Which course of action is the doctor likely to recommend?
There are no laboratory tests that can help doctors diagnose cardiovascular disease
Which of the following is false concerning the risk factors for cardiovascular disease?
Which of the following is a condition of primary aging characterized by loss of bone mass and brittle, porous bones in both men and women?
Mr. Jones, age 70, who has taken medication for high blood pressure for 20 years
Which of the following individuals might be expected to experience earlier or larger intellectual age declines?
Alcoholics are more likely to die in midlife
How do the death rates of men with alcoholism in their 50s and early 60s compare with those of nonalcoholics?
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