Chapters 7-10


Terms in this set (...)

* Vital part of everyday life
* 50% of our food dollar away from home
* Multi-bilion dollar business
* employs 12.5 million people
What does the word restaurant mean
Who set up the first restaurant
Monsieur Boulanger in Europe in 1765 when he placed a sign above his Paris restaurant saying "Boulanger sells restoratives fit for the gods."
Types of restaurants
1. Independent
2. chain
3. Casual
4. Fine Dining
5. Theme
6. Celebrity
7. Steak
8. Family
9. Ethnic
10. Franchise
11. Fast Food/quick service
12. Pizza
13. Hamburger
14. Chicken
15 Sandwich
16. Delivery Service
Independent restaurants
* Also called Indies
* Typically owned by one or more proprietors who are involved in the day-to-day operation of the business
* Offer the owner independence, creativity, & flexibility
* Not affiliated with any national brand or name
*risk of failure due to lack of knowledge, expertise, & or funds
Chain Restaurants
* Group of restaurants, each identical in market, concept, design, service, food & name
* The same menu, food quality, level of service, & atmosphere can be found in any one of the restaurants, regardless of location
* Part of the marketing strategy is to remove uncertainty from the dining experience
* Can be owned by large companies or entrepreneurs, they can be franchised, or owned by a group of people.
* Applebees is one
Casual Restaurants
* Relaxed atmosphere
* several classifications
a. Chain
b. Ethnic
c. theme
d. family
e. mid-scale casual
f. specialty
* $16 average per-person lunch & $35-$45 for dinner
* Houston's is a leader in this segment with $5.5million per unit sales in its 43 restaurants
Family Restaurant
* evolved from the coffee-shop style of restaurant
* most are individually or family operated
* located in or with easy access to suburbs
* Most offer an informal setting with a simple menu & service designed to please the entire family.
* Denny's, Cracker Barrel, Perkins
* Compete with Applebee's & TGI Friday's
Ethnic Restaurants
* Independently owned & operated
* Mexican restaurants are the fastest growing segment
* they provide something different & their popularity is increasing
* Taco Bell is the leader with 60% share, 5,600 units & 70% is via drive thru
Quick Service / Fast Food - QSR
* Included in the category
a. Hamburgers
b. pizza
c. chicken
d. pancakes
e. sandwich shops
f delivery services
*. Increasing in popularity because of their location strategies
* limited menus
* cheaper, processed ingredients to keep prices low
* minimum use of skilled & unskilled for incr profit margins
* Use of highway plazas & shopping centers
* Major driving force in the restaurant industry
* Rapid expansion using other people's money
*.Most often affiliated with chains
* It's a concept that is proven & unlikely to fail
* Initial royalty fee of $100,00s + an ave of 3-6% of sales
* drawbacks of franchising
a. Initial fee can cost from $20,000-$40,000 or more
b. Ave rest. construction $100,000 or more
c. Royalty payments paid for al long as the proprietor owns the franchise. Usually 4%
d. Charge for mktg & advertising of 2% of sales
e. limited flexibility & creativity.
f. You are not independent
g. They want you to succeed, but by their rules
Fine Dining
*. May be formal or casual; may be further categorized by price, decor/atmosphere, level of formality, & menu
*. Level of service is generally high
*. most are independently owned & operated by an entrepreneur or a partnership
* Some are fusion (blend of 2 cuisines)
* Offer a good selection of menu items-at least 15 or more
* Can include a captain, a greeter, a sommelier
Theme Restaurants
* Combine a sophisticated specialty with another type of restaurant
* Generally serve a limited menu
*.Popular themes include: Nostalgia, dinner house, rock & roll
Celebrity Restaurants
* Growing in popularity
* Generally have an extra zing to them - a winning combination of design, atmosphere, food & the thrill of maybe seeing the celebrity owner.
Steak houses
* Add additional value-priced items like chicken & fish to their menus in order to attract more customers
* The Chart House chain is careful to market their menu as including seafood & chicken, but steak is at the heart of the business with most of its sales coming from red meat
* The Longhorn Steakhouse chain has 370 units & is owned by Darden Restaurants
Hamburger Restaurants
* McDonald's & Ray Kroc is the giant in the industry-in 118 countries, serving 69 million people a day
* New menu items-salads, breakfast, etc
* Expanding overseas
* Co-developing sites with gasoline companies
* $33 billion worldwide sales
* 50% of McDonald's total profits come from outside the US
*$1-$2 million to open a McDonals's franchise
Chicken Restaurants
* Perceived as a healthier alternative to burgers.
* KFC is market leader with 13,900 units - 4.500 in the US & 9.,400 outside the US & sales of $11 billion
* KFC is part of Yum Brands, Inc
* Church's Chicken is 2nd in the industry
* Popeye's is 3rd in the industry
What does PDQ mean
1. Pretty darn quick
2. people dedicated to quality
3. A fast casual chicken sandwich & salad chain that was started by Bob Basham, co-founder of Outback Steakhouse & Nick Reader, chief executive of MVP-holdings
Pizza Restaurants
* National. local, & regional chains all with delivery service
* $21 billion market
* Some major Chains
a. Pizza Hut
b. Domino's - started in Ocean City, CA
c. Papa John's
d. Little Caesars
*Growth is fueled by the convenience of delivery
Sandwich Shops
* Recently, menu debuts in the sandwich segment have outpaced all others
* Classics, like melts & club sandwiches, have returned-but now there are also wraps
* The leader in this segment is Subway, which operates more than 20,000 units in 75 countries 2nd is Jimmy Johns
* Co-founder of Subway is Fred Deluca who invested $1,000
* subway Strategy is to invest 1/2 of the chain's advertising $ in national advertising.
Delivery Services
* Deliver prepared foods to customers' homes
* Delivery service also characterizes meals-on-wheels, as well as urban restaurants that deliver to a neighborhood
* Some delivery services function differently. They off er a limited menu from various participating neighborhood restaurants.
a. The customer places an order with the delivery service, which in turn places the order with the restaurant picks up the order & delivers it to the customer.
Green Restaurant Certification 4.0 Standards
* Comprehensive & user-friendly method of rewarding existing restaurants & foodservice operations, new builds, & events with points in each of the GRA's 7 environmental Categories
* Certified Green Restaurants accumulate points & are awarded 2, 3, or 4 stars, according to the number of points they have.
GRA's Seven Environmental Categories
* Water efficiency
* Waste reduction & recycling
* Sustainable furnishings & building materials
* Sustainable food - Must come from the ground & should
be local - no more than 250 miles away
* Energy
* Disposables
* Chemical & pollution reduction
Food Trends and Practices
* Chefs of the 21st century will need a strong culinary foundation of multicultural cooking skills & strong employability traits.
* Additional mgmt skills include strong supervisory training; a sense of urgency; & training in acct., sanitation/safety, nutritional awareness, & mktg/merchandising.
* Demographics
* Branding
* Alternative cutlets
* Globalization
* Continued & diversification
* More twin & multiple locations
* More points of service
* Sustainability
Back-to-Basics Cooking
Infusing modern technology & science into classical cooking methods to create healthy & flavorful dishes
Back-to-Basics Cooking Examples
* Thickening soups & sauces by processing & using the item's natural starches instead of traditional thickening methods
* redefining the basic mother sauces to omit the béchamel & egg-based sauces & add or replace with coulis, salsas, or chutneys
* Pursuing cultural culinary fusion to develop bold & aggressive flavors
* Experimenting with sweet & hot flavors
* Taking advantage of the shrinking globe & the disappearance of national borders to bring new ideas & flavors to restaurants.
* Evaluation recipes & substituting ingredients for better flavor; that is, flavored liquid instead of water infused coins & vinegars instead of non flavored oils & vinegars
* Substituting herbs & spices for salt
* Returning to one-pot cooking to capture flavors
Career Path in the Restaurant Industry
1. Busser
2. Food server
3. Shift Leader
4. Mgmt Trainee
5 asst Mgr
6. Mgr
7. GM
8. RM
9. Vice President
10 President
Restaurant Organizational Chart
a. Opening & Closing Managers
Back of the house , Bar Mgr, & Front of the House
Back of the house
* Cooks
* Prep Cooks
* Expediter
* Receiving
* Dishwashing
Bar Manager is over
* Bar-backs
* Bartenders
* Cocktail servers
Front of the house
Dining Room Manager
* Hotess
* Buspersons
* servers
Where does Restaurant operations begin?
With creating & maintaining curbside appeal or keeping the restaurant looking attractive & welcoming.
Begins in the parking lot & ends in the bathrooms
Host or Hostess
* Greets guests
* rotate dining guests among the sections or stations to ensure an even & timely distribution of guests so the kitchen isn't overloaded with orders.
* Introduce themselves & off a variety of beverages &/or specials, or invite guests to select from the menu (suggestive selling)
* expected to be NCO - net, clean & organized
How does a server take orders
Begins at a designated point & takes orders clockwise from that point
What does 86'ed mean
a menu item is not available
alley rally
A shift mtg that provides an opportunity to review recent sales figures, discuss any promotions & acknowledge any items that are 86'ed before the next shift of workers begins.
Steps to to take in table service
* Greet guests
* Introduce & suggestively sell beverages
* Suggest appetizers
* Take orders
* Check to see that everything is to the guests' liking within 2 bits of the entrees
* Ask if the guests would like another drink
* Bring out dessert tray & suggest after-dinner drinks & coffee
Restaurant Forecasting
*. Guests Counts or covers
* Average guest check
* Formulating a budget that projects sales & costs for a year on a weekly & monthly basis
* Predict staffing levels & labor cost percentages
Guest Counts or Covers
The number o guests patronizing the restaurant over a given time period
Average Guest Check
* Calculated by dividing total sales by the number of guests
* Most restaurants keep such figures for each meal
Total forecast sales
# of guests forecast for each day is multiplied by the amount of the average food & beverage check for each meal to calculate the total forecast sales.
* American Service
* Russian Service
* French Service
American Service
* food is prepared & decoratively placed onto plates in the kitchen, carried into the dining room & served to guests
* less formal, yet professional & preferred by today's guests
French Service
* Used in very formal restaurants
* Food is attractively arranged on platters in the kitchen & brought to the table by servers & prepared on a guardian table with a gas burner beside the guests
Russian Service
* Used in very formal restaurants
* Food is cooked in the kitchen, cut, placed onto a serving dish & garnished, presented & served to guests with a spoon & fork by the server
when a guest orders a vodka & tonic with a lower-priced "well" vodka & the server tries to "sell" the guest on a higher-priced vodka.
Back of the House
* The backbone of every full-service restaurant
* Generally run by the kitchen mgr
* refers to all the areas that guests do to normally have contact with
* Purchasing
* Receiving
* Storing & Issuing
* Food Production
* Stewarding
* Budgeting
* Accounting& Control
Food Production
* Kitchen mgr, cook or chef begins the production process by determining the expected volume of business for the next few days
* Based on expected volume of business
* The sales from the previous year gives a good indication of the expected volume & a breakdown of the # of sales of each menu item.
* prep work is done prior to service times
Kitchen Layout
* Cooking line is the most important part.
* Receiving area
* Walk-ins,
* The freezer
* Dry storage
* prepline
* Salad bar
* cooking line
* Expediter
* dessert station
* Service bar area
* The size of the kitchen & its equipment are designed according to the sales forecast for the restaurant & the menu
* The kitchen is also set up according to what the customers prefer & order most frequently
TGI Friday's five rules of control for running a kitchen
1. Order it well
2. Receive it well
3. Store it well
4. Make it to the recipe
5. Don't let it die in the window
Kitchen/Food Production
* Staffing & Scheduling
a. Crucial for the successful running of a kitchen
* Training & Development
a. Implementing a comprehensive training program is vital in the kitchen, due to a high turnover rate
* Production Procedures
a. Key to success as it relates directly to the recipe on the menu & the amount of product on hand to produce the menu.
* Productions Sheets
* Key to consistency & quality of food
* Standardized recipes are developed for each menu item to maintain consistency & minimize waste
* Mgmt should know firsthand what is going on in the back of the house
a. As mgmt spends more time in the kitchen, more knowledge is gained more confidence is acquired, & more respect is earned
Production Control Sheets
* created for each station in the kitchen.
* Levels are set up for each day according to sales
* First step is to count the products on hand for each station
*Once the production levels are determined, the amount of product required to reach the level for each recipe is decided
* Critical in controlling how the cooks use the products
Mgmt Involvement & Follow-up
* Vital to the success of a restaurant.
* Employee-mgmt interaction produces a sense of sterility & a strong work ethic among employees, resulting in higher morale & promoting a positive working environment
* Involves procuring the products & services that the restaurant needs in order to serve its guests
a. Use of standards ( Products specs)
b. System of control for theft & loss
c. par stock & reorder points
d. who will do the purchasing
e. Who will handle receiving & storage
Product Specifications
Standards for each product such as ordering meat - the cut, weight, size, fat %, # of days aged
Par Stock
the stock level of a product that must be on hand at all times
Best way to avoid losses when purchasing
1. Have chef prepare the order
2. mgr places the order
3. a 3rd person receives the order together with the chef
Purchase Order
* Is a result of the product specification
* An order to purchase a certain quantity of an item at a specific price
Food Cost Control Process
1. Menu Planning
2. Forecasting
3. Purchasing
4. receiving
5. Storing
6. Food Cost Analysis
7. Sales
8. Service
9. Production
10. Issuing
* The purpose is to ensure the quantity, quality, & price are exactly as ordered.
* Deliveries must be checked for quality - make sure that the stickers are correct for contents, wt, etc
* Quantity & quality relate to the order specification & the standardized recipe
Storing/ Issuing
* Records must be kept of all items going into or out of the stores
* Items should only be issued from the stores on an authorized requisition signed by the appropriate person
* No inventory is kept in the production area & there is no access to the stores
* Deliveries must be stored immediately following proper storage procedures
* All items that enter the stores should have a date stamp & be rotated using the FIFO system
First In-First Out System
* All items that enter the stores should have a date stamp & be rotated using the FIFO system
* Placing the most recent purchases, in rotation, behind previous purchases
* Date everything rec'd. Put the date on the front of the item & on the top of the item.
Food cost Percentage
* Calculated as the cost of food sold divided by food sales for a specific period
* The result is compared to the budgeted percentage for the period
* One of the biggest costs in a restaurant is food
* Actual food cost %age is compared to the budget % for the designated period
* Key operating ratio is cost of food sold divided by food sales for a specific time
* Average Food Cost Percentage is 28% food cost; high end steak houses run a 34% food cost
Beverage Cost Percentage
*. Largest profit margin a restaurant has, especially alcohol
* Calculated in the same way as the food cost: Cost of beverages sold divided by the total beverage sales for a period
* Applies to alcohol, but not coffee, tea, juice, etc
Labor Cost Control
* Highest cost in operating a restaurant
* Range from about 24% to 30% of total sales
* Calculated by dividing labor costs by sales
* A labor cost of 25% means that for every dollar of sales, 25% goes to cover labor costs
People who sit in a bar or restaurant & watch everything that goes on to make sure employees aren't stealing
Human Resource Mgmt
* Recruiting & Training
* Orientation / Training
* Scheduling for shifts
* Supervision & Employee Development
Financial Mgmt
* Accounting
* Cost Control
Administrative Mgmt
* Scheduling/Coordinating
* Planning
* Communication
* Mktg Mgmt
Operations Mgmt
* Facility Maintenance
* F&B Operations Mgmt
* Service
* Sanitation & Safety
Trends in Restaurant Operations
* More flavorful food
* Increased take-out meals
* Increased food safety & sanitation
* Guests becoming more sophisticated
* More food court restaurants
* Steak houses becoming more popular
* Segments splitting into upper, middle, & lower tiers
* Twin & multi-restaurant locations
* Quick-service restaurants in convenience stores
* difficulty in finding good employees
* Increase in casual dining
Managed Services
Consists of the following food service operations:
* Airlines
* Military
* Elementary & secondary schools
* Colleges & Universities
* Health care facilities
* Business & industry
* Leisure & recreation
* Conference centers
* Travel plazas
* National parks
What distinguishes managed services operations from commercial foodservices
1. In Managed services, it is necessary to meet both the needs of the guest & the institution
2. In some operations, the guests may or may not have alternative dining options available & are a captive clientele. These guests may be eating at the foodservice operation only once or on a daily basis.
3. Many managed operations are housed in host organizations that do not have foodservice as their primary business.
4. Managed services operations produce food in large-quantity batches for service &consumption within fixe time periods.
5. The volume of business is more consistent & therefore easier to cater, organize & plan. The atmosphere is less hurried, hours & benefits are better, portions can be better controlled, & easier to predict # of guests
* In-flight food may be prepared & packaged by a contractor or their own business.
* LSG Sky Chefs is the largest airline catering - 270 International airline partners
* In-flight foodservice management operators plan menus, develop product specifications, & arrange purchasing contacts.
* Airlines regard in-flight foodservice as an expense the needs to be controlled - cost for the average in-flight meal is just over $7.
* As airlines have decreased in-flight foodservice, airport restaurants have picked up the business & the # of chain restaurants in terminals have increased.
* Leading North American food & facilities mgmt services company
* A member of the International Sodexo Alliance founded in 1966 by Frenchman Pierre Bellon in Marseille France primarily serving schools, restaurants, & hospitals.
* In 1998, it became Sodexo Marriott Services
* Over 270,000 employees at 6.000 sites in 70 countries.
* Serves corporations, colleges, & universities health care organizations & school districts.
Values of Sodexo
Service spirit, team spirit, & spirit of progress
Sodexo's mission
To create & offer services that contribute to a more pleasant way of life for people wherever & whenever they come together.
LSG Sky Chefs
* Largest airline catering company with 300 international airline partners-in the air, & on the ground at 200 service centers,
* Main production center near Frankfurt, Germany
* Can produce 130,000 meals in 16 hours
Gate Gourmet International
*Operating in 49 countries on 6 continents
* 200 flight kitchen facilities
* producing over 427 million meals annually
* 30,000 employees
* Feeding military personnel includes feeding troops & officers in clubs, dining halls, military hospitals & in the field.
*Foodservice slaes to the military top $6 billion each year
Trends of Military foodservice
* Contrat of officer's club
* Fine dining to casual style
* Prepared foods to heat & serve anywhere
* Use of fast food restaurants on bases instead of mess halls
* Contracts out foodservice due to the downsizing of the corps.
* Sodexo has the contract for the USMC serving on 7 bases in 55 barracks, plus clubs & related services
Elementary & Secondary Schools / National School Lunch Act
* 1946
* A response to concern about malnourishment in military recruits in the 1940's.
* If students rec'v good meals, the military would have healthier recruits
* Such a program would make use of the surplus food that farmers produced
* Program was designed to provide stronger recruits for the military & use surplus food that farmers produced.
*Feeds 29.6 million children daily-11.6 billion/year
* Federal funding is provided in the amount of approx. $2.29 per meal per student
* Good attire is the key
* Potential market for fast food chains
* Preparation varies among schools
* contract companies are offering more flexibility
* Fat should not exceed 30% of calories per week
* No more than 10% of calories may come from saturated fat per week
Percentage of children who eat less than one vegetable serving/day
* Ages 6-11 = 32%
* Ages 12-18 = 26%
percentage of children who eat less than one fruit serving/day
* Ages 6-11 = 56%
* Ages 12-18 = 74%
Nutrition Education programs
* Required part of the nation's school lunch program
* Children learn to improve the eating habits
* Best example of educational materials is the food pyramid
Colleges & Universities
* Residence Halls
* Sports Concessions
* conferences
* Cafeterias/Student Unions
* Faculty Clubs
* Convenience Stores
* Administrative Catering
* Outside Catering
Campus Dining
* Challenging because the clientele live on campus & eat most of their meals at one of the campus dining facilities, so meals have to be creative to alleviate boredom
* Budgeting is easy due to payment plans
* Students match their payment to the # of meals eaten
* Food court offer students more choices in their dining
* Campus kitchens are using more local & organic produce & proteins where available
Campus Dining Daily Rate
* The amount of money required per day from each person to pay for the foodservice.
foodservice expenses + the # of students/ # of semester days - all divided by # of students
Student Unions
* Services offered are cafeteria foodservice, beverage services, branded quick-service restaurants, & take-out foodservice
* where students meet to socialize as well as to eat & drink
Responsiblities in managed Services
Managed services are a large component of the hospitality industry, providing companies such as educational institutions, healthcare facilities, & offices with onsite food service.
* Employee Relations
* Human Resource Management
* Financial/Budgeting
* Safety Administration
* Safety Administration
* Safety budget
* Food Production/Service
* sanitation/FBI Prevention
* Purchasing/Recruiting
* Staff Training/Development
Health Care Facilities
* services are provided to:
a. Hospital patients
b. Long-term care & assisted-living residents
c. Visitors & employees
* Service is given by tray, cafeteria, dining room, coffee shop, catering, & vending
* The main focus of hospital foodservice is the tray line
* To increase cash sales & manage profitability, mgrs of health care operations have created such concepts as medical malls with retail pharmacies; flower & gift shops; boutiques; retail bakeries' catering' & restaurants
Main focus of hospital foodservice
* Begins with the tray, a mat, cutlery, napkin, salt & pepper, & maybe a flower.
* As the try moves along the line, various menu items are added according to the color code for the particular patient's diet.
* The line goes floor by floor at a rate of about 5 trays a minute
* very labor intensive
* labor accounts for 55%-66% of operating dollars
* World's leading provider of quality managed services
* Operates in all 50 states & in 22 countries worldwide
* Started as Automatic Retailers of America - ARA
* 1950's by Dave Davidson & Bill Fishman
Compass Group
* Develops & delivers original food & service solutions to the workplace, schools & colleges, & hospitals; & to people at leisure on the move or in remote environments
* Leading food service CO
Business & Industry
* Contractors
* Self-Operators
* Liaison Personnel
* Size of the B&I sector is 30,000 units
* To adapt to corporate downsizing & relocations, the B&I segment has offered foodservice in smaller units, rather than huge full-sized cafeterias.
Business & Industry Contractors
* Companies that operate foodservice for the client on a contractual basis
* Have approximately 80% of the B&I market, remaining 20% is self-operated
* Companies who use these are in manufacturing or some other service industry.
B&I Self-Operators
* Companies that operate their own foodservice operations
* Easier to make changes to comply with special nutritional or other dietary requests.
B&I Liaison Personnel
A liaison is responsible for translating corporate philosophy to the contractor & for overseeing the contractor to make certain that he or she abides by the terms of the contract
How is B&I foodservice characterized
* Full-service cafeterias with straight line, scatter, or mobile systems
* Limited-service cafeterias offering parts of the full-service cafeteria, fast-food service, cart& mobile service, fewer dining rooms, & executive dining rooms
Leisure & Recreation
* Stadiums
* Arenas
* Theme Parks
* State Parks
* National Parks
* Zoos
* Aquariums
* Venues where food & beverage are provided for large numbers of people
What makes Leisure & Recreation fun?
the opportunity to be part of a professional sporting event, a rock concert, a circus, or other event in a typical stadium or arena
Stadium Points of Service
* Leisure & recreation facilities usually have several points of service where food & beverage are provided
a. Hot dog stands
b. Restaurants
c. In the stands
d. Superboxes, suites, & skyboxes
e. Souvenir stands
Trends in Managed Services
* College & University foodservice mgrs face increasing challenges
* Declining enrollment
* Increased use of campus cards
* Increase in food to go
* Increased use of cards at vantage points
* For mgrs, dueling demands from students & administrators
* 24-hour foodservice
* Increase in health care & nursing homes
* Proliferation of branded concepts
* Development of home meal replacement options
* Increasing use of fresh products
* Balancing rising costs with fewer dollars
* Fresh, local products - within 250 miles
Green Dining Practices
Developed in partnership with the Environmental Defense Fund. Are science-based recommendations for an environmentally friendly foodservice option & include tips for sustainable food purchasing
Restaurants make about 25% of total sales on beverages, any more would invite close attention from local law enforcement
*Fermented juice of grapes & other sugar contain fruit
* Light beverage wines
* sparkling Wines
* Fortified wines
* Aromatic wines
Light beverage wines
* White Rose & Red are still (no carbonation)
* In the US, the premium wines are names after the grape variety, such as chardonnay & cabernet sauvignon.
Sparkling Wines
* Champagne, sparkling white wine, & sparkling rose wine
* Champagne goes through a second fermentation in the bottle itself. This process has become know as method champenoise.
* Champagne only comes from the Champagne region of France.
* Invented by a monk
Fortified Wines
* Sherries, ports, Madeiras, & Marsalas
* Have brandy or wine alcohol added to them
* Alcohol content is 20%
* Tend to be sweeter
Aromatic Wines
* fortified with herbs, roots, flowers, & bark
* Also known as aperitifs
* Can be sweet or dry
History of Wine
* Produced for centuries
* Started with the Egyptians & later the Romans
* Beginning wines were highly acidic
* Making it good depends on the quality of the grape variety, type of soil, climate, preparation of vineyards, & method of wine making
* Most important grape variety is the vitas infer, which yields cabernet sauvignon, gamy, pinot noir, minor chardonnay, & riesling.
How Wine is Made
* Six steps
1. Crushing
2. Fermenting
3. Racking
4. Maturing
5. Filtering
6. Bottling
* Red wine gains its color during fermentation process from the coloring pigments of the red grape skins
The process that after maturing, the wine is filtered to help stabilize it & remove any solid particles still in the wine
When either egg white or bentonite is added to the wine.
Matching Wine With Food
* White Wine - poultry, fish & eggs
* Red Wines - Any game or red meat
* Sparkling Wines - any course from dry to sweet
* The heavier the food, the heavier the wine
* Champagne can be served throughout a meal
* When a dish is cooked with wine, it is best served with that wine
* Sweet wines should be served with foods that are to too sweet
Three Steps of Wine Testing
1. Hold the glass to the right. The color of the wine gives the 1st indication of the wine's body. The deeper the color, the fuller the wine
2. Smell the wine.
3. taste the wine by rolling the wine around the mouth and sucking in a little air
New Traditions
* Serve lighter wines before full-bodied ones
* Pair light-bodied wines with lighter food & fuller-bodied wines with heavier richer, or flavorful ones
* Match flavors & regional wines with regional foods
* Delicately flavored foods that are poached or steamed should be paired with delicate wines
* Soft cheese like Camembert & Brie pair well with a variety of red wine
United States Wine Producing Regions
* North & Central Coastal Region
a. Napa Valley
b. Sonoma Valley
* Great Central alley Region
* Southern California Region
* NY
* Oregon
* Washington
Europe Wine producing regions
* France
a Bordeaux & Burgundy
b. Champagne & Cognac
* Italy
a. Chianti
* Germany
a. Riesling
* Spain
a. Sherry
* Portugal
a. Port
* Brewed from water, malt, yeast, & hops
* Water accounts for 85%-89% of the finished beer
* Lager - clear, light bodied
* Ale - Fuller bodied, more bitter
* Stout - Dark ale, sweet, strong malt flavor
* Pilsner - Style of beer brewing
Beer Brewing Process
!. Begins with water
2. Grain is added in the form of malt (barley that has been ground to a course grit)
3. grain is germinated, producing an enzyme that converts starch into fermentable sugar. The yeast is the fermenting agent
4. The malt then goes through a hopper into a mash tub, which is a large stainless steel or copper container
5. The water & grains are mixed & heated.
6. the liquid is now called a WORT & is filtered through mash filter
7. The hop wort is filtered through the hop separator or hop jack & is pumped thru a wort cooler flowing into a fermenting vat where pure-culture yeast is added for fermentation
* the brew is aged for a few days priorate being barreled for draught beer or pasteurized for bottled or canned beer
Sustainable Brewing Process
* Utilize Biochar processing .
* Ensure regular maintenance
* Optimize resources
* utilize renewable energy technologies
* restricted by law as to how many barrels per year they can produce.
* Can sell in-house as much as they want, but they are capped as to how much they sell outside.
* Combination brewery & pub or restaurant that brews its own fresh beer on-site to meet the taste of local customers
* Produce a wide variety of ales, lagers, & other beers, the quality of which depends largely on the quality of the raw materials & the skill of the brewer
* Liquid that has been fermented & distilled
* Proof is the liquor's alcohol content.
In U.S., proof is 2x the percentage of alcohol
* Generic name for the spirit first distilled in Scotland & Ireland centuries ago
* Made from a fermented mash of grain to which malt, in the form of barley is added
* Scotch Whisky: smokey kilns
* Irish Whiskey: Not dried milder
* Bourbon Whisky: Corn mixed with rye
* Canadian Whisky: From corn
White Spirits
* Gin - made from juniper berries
* Rum - Light from sugarcane / Dark from molasses
* Tequila - Agave tequilana, a type of cactus
* Vodka - Barley, corn, wheat, rye or potatoes / Lacks color, odor & flavor
Other Spirits
* Brandy
* Cognac
* Cocktails
*Distilled from wine in a fashion similar to that of other spirits
* Regarded as the best brandy in the world
* Only made in the Cognac region of France, where the chalky soil & humid climate combine with special distillation techniques
* Drinks made by mixing 2 or more ingredients, resulting in a blend that is pleasant to the palate with no single ingredient overpowering the others
* Quality depends on the balance of ingredients, quality of ingredients, & the skill of the bartender
Non-Alcoholic Beverages
* Overall consumption of alcohol has decreased in recent years, with spirits declining the most
* Nonalcoholic beer & wine
* coffee
* Tea
* Carbonated soft drinks
* Juices
* Power drinks
* Bottled Water
Imprinted Consumer
Used to getting things a certain way
Non-Alcoholic Beer
Same appearance as regular beer but has lower calorie content & approximately 95-99 % of the alcohol removed, either after processing or after fermentation.
* Annual sales exceed $4 billion. More 17,800 coffee cafes nationwide
* first came from Ethiopia & Mocha
* The Dutch introduced coffee to the U.S.during the colonial period
Beverage Establishments
*Restauran Bars
* Hotel Bars
* Night Clubs
* Sports Bars
* Coffee Shops
* Made by steeping in boiling water the leave of the tea plant
* China - Oolong, Orange pekoe
* India - Darjeeling, Assams, Dooars
* Indonesia - Java, Sumatra
* A popular place to go to get away from the stresses of everyday life for a long time
* a risky business
* requires a considerable time commitment
* Owners should study demographics market attitude, & social dynamics.
* A new concept is critical to success.
Sports Bars
* Geared toward a more diverse base of patrons
* More family oriented- offering games & family-friendly menus
* Satellite television coverage of the top sporting events helps sports bars to draw crowds
Coffee Shops
* Originally were created based on the model of Italian bars
* Students as well as businesspeople find coffeehouses a place to relax, discuss, socialize, & study
* Cyber & WI-FI cafes are a recent trend in the coffeehouse sector
Liquor Liability & the Law
* the bar (owner, mgr, bartender) is liable if:
a. they serve a minor
b. they serve a person who is intoxicated
* Dram shop law:
a. Made owners & operators of drinking establishments liable for injuries caused by intoxicated customers
* Extent of liability an be severe
* Legislation governess the sale of alcoholic beverages
* Dates back to 1850's. Some states have reverted back to 18th century common law removing liability from vendors except when minors are served.
Columbia, MO
First college town to institute a breathalyzer in the bar & to offer a free taxi service home when too drunk to do so on your own.
Career path in the brewing industry
1. Sales Representative
2. Account Mgr
3. Area Mgr
4. Regional Mgr
5. Vice President
Trends in the Beverage Industry
* The comeback of cocktails
* Designer bottles water
* Microbreweries
* More wine consumption
* Increase in coffeehouses & coffee intake
* Increased awareness & action to avoid irresponsible alcoholic beverage consumption.