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Blood plasma osmolarity is higher than intracellular fluid osmolarity


in a state of water balance, average daily fluid gains and losses are equal


fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic receptors called osmorecepters


the kidneys secrete ADH in response to dehydration


hypovolemia refers to a deduction in total body water while maintaining normal osmolarity


aldosterone promotes potassium excretion


natriuretic peptides promote sodium and potassium excretion


hyponatremia is usually a result of hypotonic hydration


hypocalcemia causes muscle weakness, whereas hypercalcemia causes potentially fatal muscle tetanus


chloride homeostasis is regulated as a side effect of sodium homeostasis.


a buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one.


the three physiolovical buffer systems are urinary, digestive, and respiratory.


the kidneys neutralize more acid or base than any other buffer system.


acidosis is a ph lower than 7, whereas alkalosis is a ph higher than 7


uncompensated alkalosis is a ph imbalance that can only be corrected with clinical intervention.


most of the body water is in

the intracellular fluid (ICF)

osmosis from one fluid compartment to another is determined by

the relative concentration of solutes in each compartment.

in which of these compartments would fluid accumulate in edema

tissue (interstitial) fluid

most body water comes from_____, whereas most body water is lost via_____

drinking, urine

fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called


antidiuretic hormone

promotes water conservation

water output is significantly controlled through variation in

urine volume

when blood volume and pressure are too high

ADH release is inhibited

prolonged exposure to cold weather can lead to

a negative water balance

dehydration results in increased blood and ECF osmolarity, this makes osmoreceptores stimulate___secretion by the hypothalamus____ in the DCT and CD

ADH; increasing water reabsorption


decrease body water but do not significantly affect osmolarity

long-term inhibition of thirst is mostly associated with

a drop in blood osmolarity

this is the principal cation of the ECF


aldosterone receptors are foudn oc cells of

the distal convoluted tubule (DCT)


Increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secreation

Hypernatremia is a plasma___concentration above normal


Hypernatremia tends to cause all of the following except

a reduction in plasma volume

_____ is the most significant solute in determining the distribution of water among fluid compartments.


____does not stimulate aldosterone secretion

High blood sodium concentration

women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstrual cycle because estrogen mimics the action of


this is the most abundant cation of the ICF


the total body water (TBW) contente of a 70 kg young male is about

40 L.

this is the greatest determinant of intracellular volume


these scenarious are related with hyperkalemia except

resting membrane potential is more negative

is a state of hypokalemia

cells are hyperpolarized

hypokalemia can result from all of the following except from

aldosterone hyposecretion

this is the moste abundant anion of the ECF


chloride homeostasis is achieved mainly as a result of_____ homeostasis


the calcium of the body fluids

is not a significant component of nucleic acids

calcium concentration is regulated by


the inorganic phosphates (Pi) of the body fluids

form crystals with calcium in the presence of calsequestrin

excretion of phosphate

increases free calcium ions in the ECF

___ represents the complete chemical reaction for the bicarbonate buffer system.

CO2 + H2O <--> H2CO3 <--> HCO3- + H+

tissue fluid normally has a pHof


The major chemical buffers systems of the body are the _____ systems

bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein

what protein (s) is/are the most important buffer(s) in blood plasma?


what protein (s) is/are the most important buffer (s) in erythrocytes?


A weak base

Binds little H+ and has a weak effect of pH

When the renal tubules secrete hydrogen ions into the tubular fluid, they____ at the same time

reabsorb sodium

the pH of the intracellular fluid is buffered mainly by


the bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory sytem, which

expels CO2 produced by the buffer system

an antiport system on the basal side of renal tubule cells

exchanges K+ for Na+

Proteins can buffer a drop in pH by their____side groups and can buffer an increase in pH by their _____ side groups


In a person with normal acid-base balance, there are no bicarbonate ions in urine because

they are consumed by neutralizing H+

in acidosis, the membrane potential of nerve cells is _____, which ___ the central nervous system.

Hyperpolarized; Depresses

in acidosis, the kidneys compensate by

secreting more ammonia

breathing with the head inside a plastic bag can lead to

respitory acidosis

excessive intake of antacids can lead to

metabolic alkalosis

chronic vomiting can lead to

metabolic alkalosis

emphysema can lead to

repiratory acidosis

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