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Plant Systematics Exam 2
Terms in this set (58)
What group of seed plants is characterized by generally short trunks, pinnate, coriaceous leaves, and diocecy, bearing either male or female cones?
What are the families of conifers
Order = Gnetales (Ephedraceae, Welwitschiaceae, Gnetaceae); Order = Pinales (Pinaceae); Order = Araucariales (Araucariaceae, Podocarpaceae); Order = Cupressales (Taxaceae, Sciadopityaceae, Cupressaceae)
What is the name of the structure in a pine cone that directly bears the ovules/seeds? What subtends this structure?
Ovuliferous seed scale bears the ovules/seeds. Bract subtends the ovuliferous seed scales.
Name the three families of the Gnetales
Ephedraceae, Welwitschiaceae, Gnetaceae
Draw a phylogeny of Coniferales to show current understanding of phylogenetic relationships among its families.
What are the synapomorphies of Pinaceae?
-Simple, linear to acicular (needle shaped) spiral leaves
-Small pollen cones
-2 abaxial microsporangia per microsporophyll
-Seed cones with woody, ovuliferous scales bearing 2 inverted ovules/seeds
-Seeds usually winged
-Embryos with multiple cotyledons (2-18)
- pollen sacs
What is unique about the reproductive structure in Podocarpaceae?
-ovuliferous scales bear one ovule
-entire cone usually reduced to one seed
-seed born on fleshy receptacle
-seed surrounded by fleshy epimatum (modified ovuliferous scale)
What are the three genera of Araucariaceae?
Wollemia, Araucaria, Agathis
What are the diagnostic features of Araucariaceae?
- broad to acicular leaves
- large pollen cones
- many (5-20) inverted microsporangia per microsporophyll
- seed cones become large and disintegrate when mature
-each ovuliferous scale bears one seed
What is the unique leaf feature of Sciadopityaceae?
Fused in pairs; arranged in whorls called fascicles
Which country is Sciadopityaceae endemic to?
What are the synapomorphies of Taxaceae?
-Evergreen (retains green leaves year long) trees or shrubs
- linear to acicular leaves
- spiral to decussate (opposite leaves at right angles to the preceding pair)
- pollen cones with peltate (shield-shaped) microsporophylls bearing 2-16 microsporangia
- mature seed cones reduced to one seed
- seeds wrapped by fleshy aril
- two cotyledons
What are the synapomorphies of Cupressaceae?
- monoecious or dioecious shrubs
- spiral, decussate leaves; may be acicular
- pollen cones with multiple (2-10) microsporangia per microsporophyll
- pollen not saccate
- ovuliferous scales opposite or in whorls of 3
- several ovules per scale
- usually two cotyledons
What are the ten genera of Pinaceae?
What genera in Pinaceae have upright seed cones?
There are two subgenera or clades within the Pinus genus. What are their names and what features separate them?
Strobus - soft pines; 1 vascular bundle per needle
Pinus - hard pines; 2 vascular bundles per needle
How can you tell Pseudotsuga from Pinus?
Pseudotsuga has bracts that are longer than their scales.
What is the name of the only parasitic gymnosperm? Which family does it belong to?
Parasitaxus; part of the Podocarpaceae family
The evolution of fleshy structures in gymnosperm.
cones, arils, know who's got em
What is another name for flowering plants?
Name the apomorphies of flowering plants (9)
- Flowers (with perianth)
- stamens with 2 lateral thecae
- 3-nucleate male gametophyte (2 sperm cells and tube nucleus)
- carpel and fruit
- ovules with 2 integuments
- reduced femaled gametophyte
- double fertilization
- sieve tube members with companion cells
What are the common features of the early (primitive) angiosperms?
- Anther fused in synangium of 3-4 microsporangia (Radially, not bilaterally symmetric)
-Female structure = cupules (analogous with carpel)
-Capitulum at leaf base enclosing ovules
What are the major groups of basal angiosperms?
Why have the traditional dicots been abandoned as a taxonomic group?
This group is not monophyletic, it is paraphyletic (does not include all ancestors). Many traditional dicots have been regrouped into eudicots.
What is the earliest divergent angiosperm and where does it occur?
Amborellales; occurs in New Caledonia
What are the diagnostic features of Nymphaeceae (water lilies)?
-Aquatic herbs with floating leaves
- solitary floating/emergent flowers
- flowers have mostly spiral flower parts, syncarpous
- petals grade into usually laminar stamens (leaf-like stamen without a distinct anther and filament but with embedded or superficial microsporangia)
What is the term describing the fruit of Illicium (star anise)?
In Illicium there are two geographic groups in the phylogeny, what are they?
30-40 species distributed in southern and eastern Asia, the southeastern United States, Mexico, and the Greater Antilles
What family does a plant that has swollen or jointed nodes, ethereal oil, spike inflorescences with minute flowers, one upright ovule per gynocium, and lack nectaries belong to?
The black and white pepper we use as food spice belong to which family?
An herbaceous climbing plant has flowers that look like a Dutchman's smoking pipe and its ovary is inferior, and fruit is a capsule. In which family does this plant belong?
Provide two genera of plants that have disjunct distribution between eastern and western United States.
Asarum, liriodendron, taxus pacific and eastern US
True or false: Plants of Lauraceae have essential oil and stipules
False, lack stipules
This plant is aromatic, has 6 tepals, and 3-12 stamens each with paired glands, nectaries, and its anthers open by flaps. In which family does this plant belong?
What is the name of the genus in Lauraceae that is parasitic and viny?
Avocado belongs to which family?
What are the characteristic features of Annonaceae (leaf arrangement and endosperm structure)? What is the largest, edible, native American fruit?
-Leaves are 2-ranked and alternate
What are the features of Magnoliaceae?
- Solitary flowers
- stipulate leaves that leave scars
- Apocarpous gynoecium w/numerous, spiral pistils born on elongate receptacular axis (torus or androgynophore)
- aggregate fruits: berries
What are the two genera of Magnoliaceae?
How many species are in Liriodendron? What are they? How can you tell them apart based on leaf and flower features?
L. chinese and L. tulipifera.
Liriodendron chinense: slightly larger and more deeply lobed leaves, shorter inner petals in the flowers lack the orange pigment
What are the two most basal groups of monocots?
Name the major apomorphies of monocots
- one cotyledon
- parallel leaf venation
- atactostelic (scattered) distribution of vascular bundles
- sieve tube plastids proteinaceous and cuneate (wedge-like)
What kind of inflorescence does Acorales plants have?
What family do Symplocarpus (skunk cabbage) and Arisaema (Jack-in-the-pulpit) belong?
What synapomorphic feature do Symplocarpus (skunk cabbage) and Arisaema (Jack-in-the-pulpit) share?
- Bifacial leaves
- Parallel or netted venation
- Spadix inflorescence w/subtending spathe
- Seeds endospermous
- Raphide crystals
What is taro we eat? What family does it belong to?
- Family: Araceae
- Genus: Colocasia
- Part we eat: corm - modified stem structure
What is the floral formula of the Liliaceae?
P 3+3 A 3 G (3), superior
What are two exemplar genera of the Liliaceae?
What is a major apomorphy of the Asparagales?
Phytomelan: dark seed coat
What is a chemical apomorphy of the Alliaceae?
onion-like odor due to allyl sulfides
Name two economically important members of Alliaceae
Onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (allium sativum)
How many species occur in the orchid family?
For the Orchidaceae, name the ovary position, placentation, and name for specialized androecium.
- Ovary inferior
- Axile or parietal
- Column, gynostegium or gynostemium
What is a gynostemium? What are other names for this structure?
Stamen and pistil are partly united. Column, gynostegium or gynostemium
What orchid is used as a food flavoring and what part of the plant is used?
Vanilla Plantifolia, use fermented capsules (fruit)
What is the scientific name of banana?
What is the leaf arrangement and plant sex of the Musaceae?
Spiral (ptyxis), female plant
Name two economically important members of the Zingiberales.
Musaceae and Zingiberacea (ginger)
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