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PSS120: Exam Prep
Designed from the online practice tests and online tests (3rd edition text)
Terms in this set (278)
In order to move away from egocentrism and toward the ability to represent another person's mind in one's own, an individual must develop an implicit set of ideas about the existence of mental states, such as beliefs and feelings, in oneself and others, known as?
Theory of mind.
Proximity plays an important role in attraction because?
It allows people to get to know one another and sets the stage for familiarity.
In negative reinforcement, an increase in behaviour follows?
Removal of something aversive.
Drive reduction theory argues that motivation is a function of?
Drive and reinforcement.
Lee's research is a classic example of a discipline that focuses on the influence of social processes on the way people think, feel, and behave. Which discipline is this?
Which practice did the government endorse to replace protection and segregation?
A concrete way of assessing a variable.
What best states the results of the Harlow study, mentioned in your textbook that sets out to explain how infant monkeys become emotionally attached to their mothers?
The infants are drawn to their mothers by the security and comfort their mothers provide.
In his classic series of experiments using rhesus monkeys, Harry Harlow observed that the crucial element in forming attachment relationships in primates is?
On the WAIS-III, the average IQ score ranges between?
The sudden understanding of the relationship between a problem and a solution.
Learning a second language is?
Easier for a child than an adult.
In the study of the impact of mood on memory mentioned in your textbook, Bower hypnotised participants to feel either happy or sad. In this study, happiness and sadness are the two?
Conditions of the independent variable.
It is not uncommon to hear a current supermodel state that s/he was rarely asked out on a date as an adolescent. According to your text, this is because?
People tend to choose partners they perceive to be of equal attractiveness to themselves.
Research shows that speed of processing correlates with?
Good psychological research should be?
Grounded in theory and use standardised procedures.
One of the limitations of the experimental method is?
Difficulty in establishing external validity.
Case studies are?
Subject to more researcher bias than other approaches.
Although most studies conducted regarding the importance of physical attractiveness imply that appearance is the most important criteria to almost everyone, this conclusion is erroneous because?
Most of these studies were conducted with university students who tend to put a greater emphasis on appearance than do people in their later twenties or older.
What is the importance of random sampling in survey research?
To ensure that survey results accurately reflect the population as a whole without introducing systematic bias.
A researcher investigating dyslexia looks at various factors in the lives of dyslexic children and finds the following correlations: +.25 correlation between degree of dyslexia and number of relatives with dyslexia; +.15 correlation between degree of dyslexia and parental alcoholism; -.35 correlation between degree of dyslexia and family income; 0 correlation between degree of dyslexia and number of siblings. Which of these exhibits the strongest correlation with dyslexia?
In your textbook, the author discusses a study that investigates the kinds of boys who are popular. The researchers hypothesised some popular kids are actually aggressive kids who impress others with their 'toughness'. The dependent variable(s) in this study is/are?
Popularity and aggressiveness.
When using the term "Ailan Kaston", people from the Tiwi Islands are referring to?
Severe intellectual disability reflect?
Mostly reflects some biological anomaly.
In a positive co-relationship, the distribution of data points will?
Move from lower left to upper right.
Modern neuroimaging techniques use?
Computer programs to transform data from brain scans into images.
Cross-cultural studies is?
Frequently use naturalistic observation methods.
You have an encyclopaedic knowledge of animal behaviour. In which culture are you likely to reside?
The Kalahari desert.
What emotion appears to be neither a positive nor a negative affect?
When is deception permitted?
Only if the study is important enough to warrant it.
Ethics in research with animals:
Balances the costs to the animal against the benefits to humanity.
Your text mentions a study in which infants gaze into the faces of individuals rated as "attractive" longer than into the faces of those rates as "unattractive." This study provides evidence for?
The assertion that there are some facial features that are considered beautiful cross-culturally.
Testing hypotheses empirically is the context of?
Although it was not developed for this purpose, the IQ has become synonymous with?
The process of operationalisation refers to?
Turning an abstract concept into a concrete variable.
The Wechsler tests consist of?
Verbal and nonverbal subtests.
Moderately and positively related to intelligence.
Charles Spearman was the first to?
Apply factor analysis to intelligence tests.
The two-factor theory of intelligence was proposed by?
Children begin to demonstrate separation anxiety at which age?
Six to seven months of age.
People's general world knowledge is?
The information-processing view of intelligence focuses on?
Processes which underlie intelligent behaviour.
Gardner argues that?
People have multiple intelligences because they have multiple neural modules.
The term haka literally means?
To ignite the breath.
Since many people in Australia and New Zealand tend to choose mates whose cultural experiences are similar to their own and tend to look for occupations that maximise their abilities, heritability scores tend to be?
Higher than they should be.
Which type of study compares groups of subjects of different ages at a single time, to see whether differences exist among them?
Jensen's conclusion that group differences in IQ scores are due to genetic differences?
Is not supported.
The difference between the average heights of soldiers who fought at Gallipoli and those who fought in Iraq is?
The best way to predict scholastic success is to?
Use an IQ test, evaluate a student's motivation & determine if the student's parents are supportive
The first person to make a systematic attempt to measure intelligence was?
Sir Francis Galton.
A negative correlation between two variables means?
The higher a subject scores on one variable, the lower s/he will score on the other.
What is the first step in the construction of an experiment?
Framing a hypothesis.
The data across many studies indicate that?
IQ scores reflect both genetic and environmental effects.
A sample is defined as a subgroup:?
Of the population that is likely to be representative of the population as a whole.
In classical conditioning, the most effective form of temporal relationship between the CS and UCS involves?
Helps draw conclusions about a population from what happens to a sample.
Alfred Binet was primarily concerned with?
Measuring intellectual potential in children.
When reinforcing language skills, parents tend to focus on which aspect of their child's speech?
Knowledge that you have learned in this course has become part of your _____ intelligence.
Since IQ scores tend to be normally distributed, most of the scores will be?
Around the mean.
Critics of the IQ test assert that IQ scores provide little insight into an individual's?
One way to assess creativity is to measure?
Chunking refers to?
Using knowledge stored in LTM to group information and thus expand working memory.
Memory expressed in behaviour that does not require conscious recollection is?
You would do best on an exam if you could?
Take the exam in the same room you study in.
What is the normal range of information people can hold in short-term memory?
Five to nine items.
What is a sensory register?
Keeps information about a stimulus for a fraction of a second.
Cognitive psychologists distinguish between two kinds of interference when explaining memory failure?
Proactive and retroactive.
According to recent research, a child who responds to his/her mother's absence and return by approaching her while simultaneously avoiding her gaze may be displaying a variant on insecure attachment called?
In the standard model of memory, the term iconic storage refers to the momentary memory for?
According to spreading activation theory, activating one node in a network?
Triggers activation in closely related nodes.
From a psychodynamic perspective, the primary emotion that motivates a person to obey his or her conscience is?
Every time you order a chicken dinner from KFC, you get a card stamped. After you buy ten dinners, you get one for free. KFC has you on what time of reinforcement schedule?
What are generalised expectancies?
Are expectancies that influence a wide variety of behaviours.
Extinction in classical conditioning is?
Results from the omission of the UCS.
A sense of identity for Maori people came from their links to?
Tribal geneology and family structures, traditional lands & cultural practices
A victim of sexual harassment at work is highly uncomfortable when male co-workers tell 'dirty jokes', yet laughs at a dirty joke told by her husband. Her different responses to seemingly similar situations are an example of?
Regarding conditioning, prepared learning refers to?
The biologically wired preparedness of an organism to learn some associations more easily than others.
Around what age do children begin to define themselves by their internal psychological attributes, as much as by their obviously perceptible qualities, such as appearance?
Which aspect of parent-child interactions is consistently associated with high self-esteem, independence, and emotional stability?
The process by which children acquire personality traits, emotional responses, skills, behaviours, and preferences that are culturally considered appropriate to their sex, is called?
In which stage might children develop a tyrannical conscience that is always berating them, and they may become rigid and constricted?
Initiative versus guilt.
According to Kohlberg, at the third level of moral development, post conventional morality, individuals?
Self-define principles which may or may not match the dominant morals of the times.
According to Mary Ainsworth, a child who responds to his/her mother's absence and return by ignoring her or exhibiting anger and rejection, while also indicating a clear desire to be close to her, is exhibiting a(n)?
Ambivalent attachment style.
You are attracted to the person standing behind you at the supermarket checkout. You are about to strike up a conversation but change your mind when you notice the person is wearing a wedding band. The wedding band is acting as a?
Inducing the recipient of a message to think carefully and weigh the arguments is which route of persuasion?
A syllogism is a form of?
Humans think using?
Words, mental images and mental models
Manipulating mental representations for a purpose is called?
Periods of development characterised by special sensitivity to specific types of learning that shape the capacity for future development, are referred to as?
The heuristic people use to infer the frequency of something, on the basis of how readily it comes to mind, is the?
According to data from neuroimaging studies, categorising at different levels:
Seems to activate different cognitive processes.
Analogical reasoning is?
Understanding a novel situation in terms of a familiar one.
In problem solving, one moves from an initial state to a?
Mental models are ways of thinking which?
Are mental representations that describe, explain or predict the way things work.
Heritability for positive affect has been found to be?
After waiting for over half an hour to get some service at a busy café, Roger goes up to the counter, bangs his fist on it and shouts at the top of his voice. Psychologists term displays like this?
The concept best associated with the fact that not all facial expressions are observed the same from culture to culture is?
The idea that emotion may be a disruptive force can be linked back to?
Witi gets angry easily, which appears to be affecting his blood pressure and heart. If he wants to reduce his physiological reaction to frustrating events, the best approach he can take to emotional regulation is to?
Reframe the meaning of an event before it happens, if possible.
The mere exposure effect was proposed by?
You meet someone new and in the course of your first interaction, you pay less attention to what the other person is saying and more to their nonverbal behaviour. It is more likely that you were raised in a?
As new information comes into short-term memory, old information is?
"Bumped" out of short-term memory and lost.
The concept of pluralism incorporates?
The rights of ethnic groups to maintain their cultural heritage.
Aboriginal people live in a land where the norms and values of the dominant culture:
Are assumed superior and normal.
The apparently scientific basis used to justify the eventual extinction of Aboriginal people in the mid-19th century was?
Research has shown that prejudice is often associated with?
A teacher has asked the principal for advice on reducing prejudice in the classroom. The principal encourages the teacher to provide frequent and regular opportunities for students to complete their craft activities and sports games in mixed cultural groups. The principal is using which approach to reducing prejudice?
The contact hypothesis.
According to Petty and Cacioppo's model, knowing how to appeal to people requires figuring out?
The likelihood people will elaborate on the arguments.
When a list of words is presented to participants, they tend to remember those at the beginning and at the end of the list more easily than those in the middle, because of?
The serial position effect.
People sometimes report attitudes they really do not hold, in order to avoid being viewed negatively by others. This is known as?
Tony spent most of his life growing up in Mexico, but has spent the past few years in Australia. He has had several appointments with Dr. Fielding, but he arrives late on several occasions, stating that he was with his family. He tends to be late submitting reports at work and only loosely follows the duty roster as scheduled. These characteristics are typically consistent with?
Conditioned taste aversions are?
Can be acquired in some cases while unconscious,
Have been demonstrated in animals without a cortex
An environmental consequence which when presented is followed by an increase in responding is called a?
During a war, a person lived near sirens that sounded when an air raid was about to occur. Whenever she heard an ambulance siren after the war, she would begin to sweat and become anxious. Her reaction to the ambulance siren is an example of?
A conditioned emotional response
Organisms learn to discriminate between two stimuli when?
The stimuli are not consistently associated with the same UCS.
Prepared learning refers to?
The observation that the nervous system is wired for certain associations.
Evidence from the marine snail Aplysia would indicate?
Learning involves changes at the synapses.
Memory loss after receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is known as?
In avoidance learning, the participant learns to?
Turn a wheel to prevent shock.
Researchers studying attitudinal ambivalence have found that?
People can hold both positive and negative attitudes.
Extinction of operant behaviour requires?
Removal of the reinforcer.
Jocelyn can recognise in herself and others the difference between being annoyed with somebody and having contempt for them. It is likely that she can recognise these because:
In her society those two forms of anger have been culturally constructed.
The cost-benefit analysis involved in operant behaviour is known as?
Jonathon knows how to roast meat, cook vegetables, bake bread and prepare salads. He has never prepared and served a dinner for ten people and wants to learn how to do it. What is going to be the most important part of his learning?
For the Brelands, cats stalked their food slots, pigs rooted their poker chips, while raccoons tried to "wash" them. All of these responses that interfered with conditioning were?
The presence of others can either help or hurt individual performance. This is known as?
According to Tollman, learning that has occurredbut is not currently manifested in behaviour is known as?
Culture is a difficult construct to identify because it is not?
In the opening vignette, Jimmie couldn't remember anything after 1945 because of?
Jessica is a real go-getter who firmly believes that if she wants to do something badly enough, she can achieve it through perseverance. Jessica is someone who has?
An internal locus of control.
You visit a new friend for the first time and as you enter his apartment his cat hisses and jumps on you from above the doorway. This happens for several nights. Then one evening you come in for a visit and at the sound of the cat's hiss you jump briskly to one side and the cat lands on the floor next to you. The cat's hiss is the?
The approach to cross-cultural psychology that that takes a particular theory and applies it to an individual culture is termed?
An emic perspective.
Verbal representations are most often?
Of abstract concepts.
The neurochemistry of an Alzheimer's patient would most likely show extremely low levels of?
Mental models include?
Descriptions of relationships among the elements
Tests make you anxious. You forgot there was a test today. This might be best explained as being a result of?
If a study fails to convincingly test the experimenter's hypothesis, it is said to lack?
When her classmates were asked to write down the names of peers they really liked and really disliked, Maria wasn't picked by anyone. Maria would best be described as?
Research indicates that we tend to perceive _________ people as possessing greater sociability and social competence than those who are not.
The term that describes the visual sensory register is?
According to the evolutionary perspective, romantic love is?
An adaptation that fosters the reproductive success of two people likely to become parents of an infant who will need their reliable care?
Defining features are?
Essential properties of a category.
The steps in doing an experiment lead from one to another in a circular fashion because?
The conclusion of one study is generally the origin of the next study.
The purpose of John Watson's famous study with little Albert (in which he conditioned Albert to associate furry things with a loud noise) was to demonstrate that?
A fear response could be classically conditioned.
Cultures differ in their time perspective and orientation. In polychronic cultures, time is divided?
Fluidly and loosely related.
About 1% of the population suffers from a progressive and incurable disorder marked by global disturbance of the higher mental functions, known as?
Cultures in which close attention is paid to what people are actually saying or doing, and where this is literally interpreted are?
Attachment theorists argue that people?
Pattern their love relationships on the mental models they constructed of earlier attachment relationships.
A correlation coefficient measures the extent to which two variables are?
At the superordinate level objects share?
Few common features.
Individuals who perceive themselves as physically attractive report being more extroverted, socially comfortable and mentally healthy than those who report feeling less comfortable with their appearance. It may be that their perceptions have led to?
A self-fulfilling prophecy.
What is among the most powerful roles into which people are socialised?
Most people, when asked to define intelligence, emphasise?
The effectiveness of emotional expression of feelings about stressful events in later health is supported by?
Rachel's good health after her first visit to the psychologist.
Why do many people remain in an unhappy marriage?
People will stay in an unhappy marriage if they feel they have put a lot into it and that they cannot do any better.
How was the Seattle Longitudinal Study able to challenge the view that cognition declines throughout middle and old age?
Because it was a longitudinal study, it could assess the percentage of people within an age group that exhibited cognitive deterioration.
Ping is a newly arrived student from Malaysia. She has spent the first few weeks exploring the campus, looking around the city, and settling into campus life. Ping is in which phase of culture shock?
The process by which people generate and evaluate arguments and beliefs is called?
There is some disagreement amongst social psychologists regarding whether particular biases are cognitive or motivational in origin. Confirmation bias can be seen in the light of ___________.
Cognitive and motivational.
The changes that groups and individuals undergo when they come into contact with another culture is referred to as?
The scientific approach to research has three main goals, what are they?
description, prediction and understanding
According to some theorists, the primary center of emotion is?
A pervasive bias in social cognition is self-serving bias, the tendency of people to?
See themselves in a more flattering light than others see them.
Forming opinions about a person based on (usually negative) characteristics to her, based on her membership in a specific group, is called?
Learned helplessness is a good example of the power of?
I keep playing the same video game over and over again. I just feel this huge desire (need) to get to a higher and higher level. This is an example of a?
A new kind of air conditioner is being tested for its noisiness. Subjects are told that the sound it emits tends to make people sleepy so that it would be a good device for bedrooms. Subjects are asked to use one for 30 days and complete a series of ratings, each day, regarding the ease with which they were able to fall asleep. The description of the study leaves one most concerned about?
One of the clearest changes that accompanies ageing is?
John and Carol's teenage son, Elliot, has asked them for permission to attend a weekend party at the beach house of a friend's parents. For reasons they will not discuss with their son, they've decided to withhold their consent, and inform Elliot of their decision. Elliot accepts the ruling without protest, as he's learned from experience that further discussion would not only be fruitless but also might result in punishment. Diana Baumrind would most likely describe Bob and Carol's parenting style as?
Observational learning in which a human learns to reproduce behaviour exhibited by another is called?
Neuroimaging studies indicate that whereas categorising at the superordinate level requires verbal memory retrieval, while categorising at the basic level requires?>
Research with the fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) has indicated that working memory?
Actually consists of several independent components.
Masserman et al conducted a study in which monkeys who had learned to pull a lever to receive food began to starve themselves because the pulling of the lever would also send an electric shock to another monkey. This study supports the claim that?
Both human and animal behaviour is motivated by empathic distress.
To do well, to succeed, and to avoid failure, all refer to the need for?
Within multicultural populations such as those in Australia and New Zealand, many groups defines themselves not only by nationality but also by?
In vicarious learning?
A person learns consequences of an action by watching someone else's results.
A variable involved in cognitive development is metacognition, which is?
Thinking about thinking
The statement 'Logically, if A, then three' refers to which type of reasoning?
A memory technique used to remember more information.
Social relationships, particularly with people in whom one can confide, are important for?
Both physical and mental health.
The term reciprocal altruism refers to the fact that altruism is?
An adaptive strategy if the benefits to survival and reproduction outweigh the risks over time.
According to your text, socialisation is?
A transactional process in which children participate.
In problem solving, sub-goals are defined as?
Mini-goals on the way to achieving the broader goal.
According to the information-processing approach to cognitive development, in memory tasks, young children tend to rely on strategies such as?
Procedural memory refers to?
The idea that the origins of attachment are not tied to feeding was due to the research of?
For females, the heritability of homosexuality is estimated to be between?
.27 and .76
Many people claim not to be racist but, in fact, hold one attitude after another that "just happens" to be unfavourable to minorities, such as attitudes towards welfare or immigration. This is called?
Everyday memory is?
Memory in the naturalistic setting.
According to your text, one type of information that people rely upon when making attributions to a person or situation is consistency, which is?
The extent to which a person always responds in the same way to the same stimulus.
Alicia came to Australia in her late teens. Now in her late twenties, she feels she is able to work and live within "Australian culture" whilst maintaining strong links with her cultural community. Her values and attitudes continue to be influenced by her cultural heritage. According to your text, this would be best described as?
You are at school and discover you have a nail coming out of a shoe and no hammer. You can't think of anything that you might use to pound the nail back in so you pull it out. You were probably suffering from?
The most common misperception people hold about homosexuality is that it is a?
An integral part of our personal identity is our?
Research indicates that an adult's attachment pattern in relation to his or her own parents, as assessed by interview, can quite accurately predict?
Their own children's attachment style.
Confirmation bias refers to?
The tendency to test existing hypothesis rather than seeking new ones.
Number concepts in animals can be demonstrated by?
Training animals to eat a specific number of pellets, no more, no less.
When people make attributions, they are behaving as?
In a study, 10-year-old members of an elementary school chess club and adults with no particular knowledge of chess were asked to recall random arrangements of chess pieces on a board. According to the results of past research, we can most reasonably predict that?
Children out-performed the adults.
Different levels of processing?
Activate different neural circuits.
If the adrenal glands secrete too much androgen such that the genitals of females are masculinised, the resulting condition is referred to as?
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
The notion that people of other races "all look alike" or that members of other groups are seen to share many core traits - which is highly unlikely given the tremendous differences in personality that exist within any group of people - is indicative of?
Sophie, a four-year-old female, can answer intelligence questions at a six-year-old level. Her MA is?
As the likelihood that you can actually attain a desired object rises, so does the?
The tendency for a person's own culture to influence the way they view the rest of the world is known as?
Hormones are said to have two effects on the nervous system and behaviour. What are those two effects?
Organisational and activational.
The encoding specificity principle implies that?
Retrieval is easier if the encoding and retrieval environment are similar.
According to the information-processing approach to cognitive development, speed of processing across a wide array of simple and complex tasks increases throughout childhood, and levels off around?
15 Years of age.
Cognitive shortcuts for selecting from among alternatives quickly.
Researchers studying adult attachment have examined the way individuals describe and recall their relationships with their parents. Adults with avoidant attachment styles?
Sometimes offer idealised generalisations about their parents.
The correlation between socioeconomic status and obesity in industrialised countries is?
The process of inferring the causes of one's own and other's mental stages and behaviours is called?
David is picturing his dry cleaning heaped on top of his TV, a loaf of bread hanging where the remote control usually hangs, and bills sticking of is VCR. What mnemonic is he using to remember?
Method of loci.
Schemas can affect the way people remember by?
Influencing what is encoded
Shaping what is reconstructed from stored memories
Aggression refers to?
Verbal or physical behaviour aimed at harming another being.
The idea that people derive their identity from the groups to which they belong is the basis for?
Social identity theory.
Results of imaging studies indicate that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in?
According to Piaget, the ability to manipulate abstract as well as concrete objects, events, and ideas mentally, characterises which stage?
Each piece of information along a network is called?
Many of the "seven sins" of memory described by Schacter are?
The result of an adaptive memory process.
An injection of which chemical into the lateral hypothalamus of laboratory animals would elicit eating?
The behavioural manifestation of prejudiced attitudes is?
In a study, researchers attempted to defuse hostility that had formed between different factions of Boy Scouts, by contriving situations that created ________ goals, requiring that groups cooperate for the good of all.
A person with ventromedial prefrontal cortical damage will?
Often be unable to stop considering alternatives and make a decision.
When asked which of two cookies is bigger—a long thin one or a short, thick one—a preschooler is likely to?
Pick the longer one, even though they both really are the same size.
Research indicates an infant who is temperamentally prone to distress may be more likely to become insecurely attached if?
Her primary caregiver is rigid and emotionally controlled.
An environmental variable that appears to have a tremendous impact on security of attachment is?
The mother's sensitivity to her baby's signals.
Important as a medium for thought.
My body operates incredibly efficiently when I get 7 hours of sleep. This number refers to my?
Two-year-old Lauren loves to play "peek-a-boo" with her mummy, indicating that she has acquired?
When attempting to answer the question, "How long is long-term memory?" researchers draw a distinction between availability—whether the information is still "in there"—and accessibility—the ease with which it can be retrieved. For the most part, accessibility?
Reflects level of activation.
Christine worked long hours preparing for an audition. Her actual audition went well and she thought she got the part. When the show was cast and she was not in it, she became furious and started throwing things around her room. According to Dollard and Miller, this scenario is an example of?
The frustration-aggression hypothesis.
Decay theory says we forget?
Due to the gradual loss of physiological changes due to learning.
Piaget had a keen interest in epistemology, the branch of philosophy concerned with?
The nature of knowledge.
Openly expressed and practiced discrimination against people of particular cultures is known as?
You are a participant in a psychology experiment in which you are told to learn a list of words that will be presented to you by the experimenter. Half way through the list you are told to forget the words you have seen and just remember the last words given to you. Later, you are asked to recall both sets of words. You will?
Remember more from the last half but recognise words equally from both lists.
Which cultures place less of a premium on autonomy and self-direction?
Researchers have identified three infant temperaments, which correspond in certain respects to human attachment styles?
Easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up.
Words and phrases combine to make?
The term "infantile amnesia" refers to?
The lack of explicit memory before the age of 3 or 4 years.
According to Chomsky, humans are born with a "language acquisition device" which?
Contains universal grammatical rules.
Some of the best evidence for the existence of repressed memories comes from a study?
Which showed that 17 years after their documented abuse 38% of victims did not recall the event.
The tendency of humans, even from birth, to pay more attention to novel stimuli than to stimuli to which they have become accustomed to is called?
The orienting reflex.
According to cognitive-social theories, the roots of aggression lie in?
Harsh parental discipline.
The best evidence for a "critical period" for language development comes from the observation that?
Deaf children who come to signing late never get as good at it as early signers.
According to the textbook, the idea that individuals are motivated to mate with individuals who are not relatives, is thought to be due to?
Attachment-related behaviour such as protest at separation probably does not occur in the first six months of life because?
Myelination of the neurons has not sufficiently progressed in the limbic structures.
According to your text, in which cultures is conformity higher?
What is the correct sequence of stages of prenatal development?
Germinal, embryonic, foetal.
For women, the most dramatic physical change of middle adulthood is?
According to your text, the most commonly exhibited attachment pattern around the world is?
Some researchers distinguish between three components of an attitude. These are?
Cognitive, emotional, behavioural.
Which of the following most accurately delineates the three components of consummate love as defined by Sternberg's triangular theory?
Intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment.
Tiger Woods has just sunk a 38-foot putt for a birdie that breaks a tie and means he is the winner of the British Open. He stands up, pumps his right arm several times and throws his putter into the air. This is a form of?
ERG theory condenses Maslow's hierarchy of needs into three distinct levels?
Existence, relatedness, and growth.
The approach to reducing racism and prejudice that involves getting people together from different cultural backgrounds to work cooperatively is known as?
Longitudinal studies are useful in assessing?
Age changes rather than age differences.
The relationship between learning to speak and learning read shows?
Learning to read is not natural.
Bowlby proposed that infants develop mental representations of attachment relationships that form the basis for expectations in close relationships. He referred to this as?
Internal working models.
Companionate love involves?
Deep affection, friendship, and emotional intimacy.
Deci's self-determination theory argues that people have innate needs, what are they?
Competence, autonomy & relatedness to others
What do all groups develop in order to guide thought, feeling, and behaviour?
Black children adopted by white middle-class families tend to have IQ scores that are?
Higher than similar black children raised in poverty.
A child whose early attachment to her mother is marked by extreme anxiety resulting from inconsistent or abusive caretaking may?
Form a working model of herself as unlovable and see significant others as unpredictable.
Which stage of moral judgment is typical of school children before the age of 9 or 10?
Morality of constraint.
When the British arrived in Australia, the number of separate languages was estimated at?
Research investigating culture as a mediator of cognitive complexity found?
Complexity depended on the nature of the situation.
Refining the degree to which a person holds ambivalent attitude is important in assessing?
The relationship between attitudes and behaviour.
What is an incentive?
An incentive is an external stimulus or reward that can have motivational consequences.
Children encode and organise information about their culture's definitions of maleness and femaleness in?
Communication practices are at the heart of which relatively new approach in psychology?
Which term refers to the influence of social processes on the way people think, feel and behave?
Empathy is said to have two components?
Cognitive and emotional.
What is the significance of the Zimbardo Prison Studies?
People's behaviour, emotions, attitudes, and identities can be heavily influenced by roles.
According to social Darwinian theory, the Aboriginal people were viewed as?
The traditional foundation of community life in the Torres Straight Islands was?
The process whereby group members make decisions based more on maintaining group harmony and cohesiveness than on actual analysis of the realities of a situation is?