Conflict Resolutions & Negotiations Exam III

informational complexity
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red hatfeelings, intuition, gut instinct- no need to justify or explainblack hatrisks, difficulties, problems- skeptical view- reasons must be given- potential problemsbusiness coalitionsissue networks, policy communities, iron trianglesissue networkloose assoc. of interests transitional existence- single issue something competing interestspolicy communitiesinterest in set of issues protection & perpetuation of speific policies ongoing assoc. coporatism of neo-corporatismiron trianglesinvolved ongoing govt involvement cosy triangle of cozy assoc.inter-team negotiationstwo or more people from your party negotiate against 2 or more people fromt he other sidecoalitions most important featureability to strengthen solidarity among its constituentsmenoutperform women in both integrative and distributive negotiationsgender differences origins1. gender of negotiator 2. gender expectations of opponent 3. differences attributed to the situation 4. negotiators gender in combo/interacts with situationgender differences attributions1. how we socialize 2. self construals 3. moral valuesmen socializationless verbal, more agressive, quantitative, visual spatial- use argument, persuasion and debatewomen socializationdialogue is central to solving problems through communicationmen self construalsseek independence- negotiate more confrontationallywomen self construalsdefines themselves in terms of relationships- show sensitivity to others needs and POVsmen moral valuesprefer to rely on abstract principles & fundamental rights- hash out what right vs. wrong- clear winner/loser-negotiation=gamewomen moral valuesprefer to preserve personal integrity- preserve relationshipsthreat sensitivityreflects how sensitive ppl are to losing face- their good name, image or reputation.Machiavellianismpertains to how cynical we are about others motivesself-efficacyreflects a persons assessment of how well he or she can perform in a particular situationself-monitoringreflects a persons sensitivity to the social cues that emanate from the social environmentsocial value orientationindividuals preferences for their own outcomes related to others outcomesproselfsmaximize their own gain by asking more competitive questionsprosocialsmaximize joint gain by asking questions about cooperative tendencies and more responsive to reciprocitymale attributes (effective)-strong -dominant -assertive -rationalfemale attributes (ineffective)-weak -submissive -accommodating -emotionalintrovertI-people are reserved, timid and quietextrovertE-people who are outgoing, sociable, gregarious, and assertiveSensorS- pay attention to facts and details, linear thinkers, sensible- like ideas with practical value- trust direct experienceIntuitiorN- try to understand meanings, connections, and implications. imaginative- trust gut instinctsthinkerT- make decisions objectively, carefully weigh pros or cons, persuaded by logical arguments- analyticalFeelerF- make decisions based on how they feel and how it will affect others- sensitive, empathetic, find strong emotional appeals to be persuasiveJudgerJ- make decisions quickly and easily, organized, goal orientated and punctual- more definite need less infoPerceiverP- takes in more info before deciding- likes to keep options open, flexible, spontaneous, see all sides of the issues5 underlying concernsappreciation, affiliation, autonomy, roles, statusemotional intelligencehaving the ability to use and understand emotions adaptively in everyday lifeemotional intelligence abilities1. perceiving emotion 2. facilitating emotion 3. understanding emotion 4. managing emotionlegal pluralismthe different legal systems must support the agreement ensuring it complies with each set of legal requirements or rulespolitical pluralismnegotiators must deal with at least 2 different political systemsideological differencesdifferent ideas upon which political, economic and social systems are based uponculturedistinct characteristics of a social groupvisible componentsbehavior and institutionsinvisible componentsvalues, beliefs, norms, structures, assumptionsindividualisticsocial, economic and legal institutions promote and protect individuals' autonomy, accomplishments and rights.collectivisticthese institutions promote individuals' interdependencies with others in their families, at work and in their communities.individualistic countriesUS and Israelcollectivistic countriesJapan and Mexicohigh power distancehierarchal cultures (China & Egypt) - social status determines social power- social ranks are closed and inflexiblelow power distanceegalitarian cultures (Australia & Austria)- social boundaries are more permeable and social status is short livedlow context culturecommunicate directly (Canada & Norway) -individualistichigh context culturecommunication indirectly ( Brazil & Russia) -collectivisticlow context/ individualisticWhich type of cultures adopt a reciprocal questioning approach?collectivisticWhich cultures spend more time planning for long term goals?collectivisticwhich cultures frame some conflicts as breaches of social position?individualisticwhich cultures spend more time planning for short term goals?individualisticwhich culture makes more extreme offers?american weaknesses-interagency rivalries - separation btn congress and admin -hard to keep confidences -impatient -cultural insensitivitywhy impassesbecause: -incompatible frames -incompatible negotiation styles -unrealistic expectations -dirty tricksbreak impasses-make small concessions -acknowledge others concerns -deal w/ emotions -offer new info -enhance own power & increase aspirationsstrategic movesgiving the other party incentive to listen, consider and negotiate our ideas (pressure moves & enlisting support)strategic turnsreframing the negotiation ( interrupt the move, naming the move, corrective turns)appreciative movesfacilitate the process by capturing the applicable synergiesconvos within a difficult convo1. what happened convo 2. feelings convo 3. identity convopsychopathyantisocial personal disorderpsychotic disorderhallucinations and delusionspositivelyHow do you say no to people that are important to you?ADR formsnegotiation, mediation, arbitrationmediatorshave no authority to make final outcome decisions - that is left to the negotiators- they are there to facilitate and manage the processmediationmost appropriate when the conflict is moderately intense and parties are receptive to assistance and motivated to settlemediatiors- save face -enhance relationships -remove obstaclesmediation process1. opening remarks 2. share perceptives 3. mediators summary 4. problem summary 4. write an agreementarbitrationa method for resolving failed negotiations by having a third party impose a decision on the negotiators-usually used to settle disputes - violations of legal, contractual or policy provisions.arbitrationmost appropriate when: The conflict is highly intense, the parties are not motivated to settle. The issues are limited to those involving severely limited resourcesHigh outcome controlinquisitor or arbitratorlow outcome controlintimidator or motivator