Science Unit test
Terms in this set (55)
A particular group or type of animals living in an area or country
Group of animals living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common.
Living component that affects the population of another organism, or the environment.
A nonliving condition or thing, as climate or habitat, that influences or affects an ecosystem and the organisms in it
Is an organism, either a green plant or bacterium, which is part of the first level of a food chain. Make their own food either using photosynthesis or chemo synthesis
An organism, typically an animal, that feeds on other animals or plants. A consumer is part of the food chain.
Use of sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen.
Use thermal and chemical energy of earths interior (dark environments)
Uses blocks or different size/length to represent how much energy is available in each trophic level.
Energy decreases by _____ % per each trophic level, and _____% gets passed onto the the level above.
Energy decreases by 90%, and 10% gets passed onto the level above.
Pyramid of numbers
Represents the actual number of organisms in each trophic level. Not very accurate depiction of of energy flow.
Pyramid of Biomass
Represents the actual total mass of living things in each trophic levels
The quality of being reproducible in amount or performance. How close the results are to the average value.
The quality of being near to the true or desired value.
The change or difference between extremes in a set of values.
When two or more organisms compete for the same resource
when a consumer (a predator) captures and eats another organism (prey)
Very close relationship between two different species where at least one species benefits. (There is three different types)
Both species benefit
One species benefits, and the other is unaffected.
One species benefits (parasite) and the other is harmed. Parasites usually feed or live inside host. 25% of organisms are parasites.
Precipitation and temperature
Main factors of climate
Latitude, elevation, distance from bodies of water.
Latitude affects on climate
Determines amount of solar energy (light or heat) available (ex. temperature)
Near the equator he sun rays directly hit the earths surface=hotter weather.
Near the pole the sun hits the earth at an angle, so they're spread out more therefore less energy which = cooler temps
Elevation and distance from water
At higher elevations there are cooler temperatures, and less precipitation. (and vice versa)
On the coast there are milder temperatures and more precipitation (and vice versa)
Upper norther hemisphere, temp in summer ranges from 3-12 degree Celsius. Winter is -20 to -30 degrees Celsius. Less than 25 cm annually.
Northern hemisphere. Below freezing half of the year. Quite low precipitation.
Temperate deciduous forest
Found in eastern North America, Asia and Western Europe. Extreme seasonal changes, regarding temperature. Precipitation is quite high.
Found in Canada. 20-30 degrees Celsius daily, cold winters below -10 degrees. 50-130 annual precipitation
Never above freezing, low precipitation.
Tropical rain forest
20-25 degrees all year round. Very high precipitation levels. Found around the equator.
We live in one, they're found along the north west coast of North america and the coast of Chile. 5-25 degrees Celsius is the range, and it exceeds 200 cm a year of precipitation.
Three options for organism if the environment changes
1. Leave ecosystem
2. Adapt to new environment
Any modification of an organism so that it is more likely to survive and reproduce in a certain environment. Organisms would evolve over eons through process of natural selection.
The process tat favors the survival of organisms with traits that are better adapted to the environment.
Specific role an organism plays in an ecosystem.
Once a new adaptive trait is established, the organisms will reproduce and the population size of organisms with that trait will increase dramatically.
When species are eliminated due to change in the environment, or inability to adapt with other species, or with human influence.
When a different species have different traits that allow them to use a resource at a different time, way, or place.
Species that play an important role in determining the number and types of other species in a particular ecosystem through biotic interactions. Loss of the keystone species equals drastic changes to an ecosystem.
Native, indigenous species
Species local to ecosystem
Species that are originally from another ecosystem.
Invasive species is a foreign species that upsets the balance of new ecosystem.
Occurs in areas were there was no life previously, no soil.
Primary Succession steps
1. Pioneer species break down rock and create soil.
2. other species arrive, which continues to change the ecosystem.
3. Climax community is established and final population is resistant to change.
Occurs in areas where preexisting ecosystem has been disturbed. Pioneer species are seeds buried in soil or seeds brought by other species.
Occurs in all organisms. It occurs in the mitochondria, the power home of the cell. Occurs with oxygen and glucose, and produces water, CO2, and energy. Plants use the products of cellular respiration.
A carbon exchange (yearly), One billion tons
What form of carbon is released into the atmosphere
Where does carbon go during decomposition
carbon is used by producers, consumers, and decomposers cycle it through the air, then get stored in tree roots.
Where on earth is carbon stored (sinks and stores)
-Carbon is found in the atmosphere where it's part of carbon dioxide gas emitted when fossil fuels are burned and when living organisms breathe.
-It's in organic matter in the soil, and it's in rocks.
-The most carbon on Earth is stored in the ocean.
-oil and gas deposit
Which components of the cycle have a net release of carbon into the atmosphere
-sea surface gas exchange
- fossil fuel combustion
-change in land use (agriculture)
-Circulation of intermediate and deep water
All organisms need to carry out these basic life functions
The accumulation of a substance, such as toxic chemicals, and various tissues of the living organism
why: toxins are persistent (POP)
Not broken down during digestion and stored in body tissues/fat
The increased amount of bioaccumulation and higher order organisms is referred to as biomagnification