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AP Human Geography: Chapter 5- Language

Marabell
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Where is Basque primarily spoken?
Basque was spoken in Europe before the Indo-European languages It is now the first language of people in the Pyrenees Mountains of northern Spain and southwestern France
What types of languages are still being added to the language list?
Semitic?
Define Lingua Franca.
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages.
What are the parts of the language theory?
figure it out! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy_of_language
What are the parts of the Anatolian hearth theory?
It is the Sedentary Farmer Thesis It was proposed by Renfrew 1st protonindo euro speakers lived in present day Turkey trading of food and agricultural technology leads to diffusion of language
The survival of a language depends on what 2 factors?
military and political strength of its speakers
What is the exact definition of a language family?
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
Isolation of people leads to what in terms of languages?
differences in languages for example vocabulary, spelling, dialect, pronunciation
What is the leading language of the internet?
English
What is the most important language family in Sub-Saharan Africa?
Niger Congo
English belongs to what language branch?
Indo-European
What are the 6 official UN languages?
Arabic French English Mandarin Russian Spanish
What are the official languages of Switzerland?
German French Italian Romansh
What are the differences between American and British English? How was the vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation different?
Isolation created different dialects new inventions and discovery of new plants and animals Noah Webster standardized spelling and created a unique American language
What is the most widely spoken language in Brazil?
Portugese
Define Franglais. 1st speakers of the language that English developed from lived in present day what?
A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language; a combination of French and English
Why is English the most important language in America (history)?
America was settled by the British. and british speakers moved to america and everyone else who moved to america spoke a language similar to english
What is the 2nd most widely spoken language family in Europe?
Romance
Where do the Flemings and the Walloons live?
Belgium
What are 3 European countries not dominated by Indo-European speakers?
Estonia Finland Hungary
What are the Proto languages?
A language which is reconstructed by examining similarities in existing languages to try to deduce what a common ancestor language, no longer known, would have been like
SEE ALSO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_proto-languages
What is the most widely spoken Indo-European language?
English
Why did different dialects develop in England?
their is five different regions different people settled in different places
Define isogloss.
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
Why do Flemings and Walloons speak different languages?
the boundary between the Romance and Germanic branches run through Belgium
What are the two most important languages in South America?
Portugese and Spanish
Why has English achieved unprecedented acceptance as a language?
Most of the places that use English have been colonized by the same people
What is an ideogram?
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or a concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
Define literary tradition.
A language that is written as well as spoken.
What happened to the East Germanic language group?
Goths were converted to other languages because of political/religious preferences
What is the "Vulgar Latin"?
Form of latin that is not standard literary but spoken form of the masses
Who were the 3 Germanic invaders of English?
Angles Saxons Jutes
English belongs to what language group?
Germanic
What are the 4 most frequently spoken branches of the Indo-European branch? What are the four minor?
Indo-Iranian Romance Germanic Balto-Slavic
Albanian Armenian Greek Celtic
Which region of the American colonies had the most diversity?
Mid Atlantic
Is basque an isolated language? Why is it a isolated languages?
Yes, because it is specific to a certain group of people and is not widely used
What is the full definition of language branch?
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago.
Explain Gimbutas' theory in detail.
The Nomadic Warrior Thesis 1st Proto into euro speakers were the Kurgan people who lived on the steppes between Kazakhstan and Russia earliest evidence from 4300 BC they had domesticated animals and needed grass lands defeated much of Europe and South Asia
Define creolized language.
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.
What are the ideogram languages?
Japanese Chinese
What is the language spoken by the greatest number of native speakers in the world?
Mandarin Chinese
Why has the Icelandic language not changed much?
They had little contact with the rest of the world and had less opportunity to learn new words and no reason to change their language
What is the Bulgaria language family?
Balto-Slavic
Who were the invaders of England and how did they change the language?
Germans and Normans invaded England the Germans added German influence and the Normans added French influences
What was the 1st language of England?
Where was Celtic originally spoken?
Where is it spoken today?
What two groups is the Celtic branch divided into?
What are the two Gaelic languages to survive?
Celtic
Germany France northern Italy British Isles
Scottish Wales Ireland Brittany
Gaelic and Brythonic
Irish and Scottish Gaelic
What is the most popular secondary languages of the US and Canada?
Spanish and French
Pidgin languages in detail. What is a pidgin language? How is a pidgin language created?
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca; used for communications among speakers of two different languages. By learning a few grammar rules and words of a Lingua Franca, while mixing some elements of their own languages.
What is the second largest language family?
Sino-Tibetan
What is the key language of Pakistan?
Hindustani
How do Australia's and New Zealand's language policies differ?
New Zealand requires immigrants are fluent in English and tries to preserve local culture. Australia requires immigrants to learn English and promotes the use of english throughout Australia
What are the key Romance languages?
Spanish Portugese French Italian
What are the two theories of how language spread? What are the two theses?
war and conquest based on diffusion
Nomadic Warrior Thesis
Sedentary Farmer Thesis