APUSH- Unit Four Vocabulary
Terms in this set (56)
Treaty with Britain negotiated in 1793 in which the United States made major concessions to overt a war over the British seizure of American ships
(Treaty of San Lorenzo/ Madrid) signed in October 27, 1795 and established intentions of friendship between the United Sates and Spain by Spaniards recognizing the right of Americans to navigate the Mississippi and use the New Orleans port. Also Spain agreed to fix the northern boundary of Florida along the 31st parallel and preventing Indians from launching raids across U.S borders.
1794; farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey and several federal officers were killed in the riots. Army led by Washington put down rebellion (New government under Constitution can react swiftly unlike Shay's Rebellion)
a system of economic production based on the private ownership of property and the contractual exchange for profit of goods,labor, and money.
emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the leader of Federalists (Wrote Federalist Papers). Later became secretary of treasury under Washington. Created the Bank of the United States.
Document issued by Alexander Hamilton. Document asked Congress to charter the bank of U.S wanted bank to be owned by private stockholders and national government. Hamilton argued the bank would provide financial stability by making loans to merchants by handling government funds and by issuing bills of credit
Led by merchants, bankers, and lawyers
Primarily in new england
Favored a strong centeal government
Believed in a gov of the elite, educated, and wealthy
Vision for the US to be trade center, industry ad self suffcient nation
Led bt planters, farmwrs, and wage earners living.
Primarily in the south and west
Favored strong state gov
Ruled by the educated mass
Vision for the US -> agricultural society with little trade and industry
second President of United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after XYZ affair. ( Also VP under George Washington)
Diplomatic incident in 1798 in which Americans were outraged by the demand of the French for a bribe as a condition for negotiating with American diplomats.
Alien and Sedition Acts
collective name given to four acts passed by Congress in 1798 that curtailed freedom of speech and liberty of foreign residents in the United States
Virginia and Kentucky Resolution
1798; put into effect by Jefferson and James Madison, These were secretly made to get the rights back taken away from the Alien and Sedition Acts. These also brought about the later compact theory which gave the states more power than the federal government.
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's view of his election to presidency. Jefferson claimed that the election of 1800 represented a return to what he considered the original spirit of the Revolution. Jefferson's goals for his revolution were to restore the republican experiment, check the growth of government power, and to halt the decay of virtue that had set in under Federalist rule
3rd President of U.S; chief drafter of Declaration, made Louisiana Purchase, sent out Louis and Clark on expedition. Delegate from Virginia at 2nd Continental Congress
President and VP are chosen by the Electoral College
-VP must be eligible to become President
-In choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote
-If the House shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March, then the VP shall act as President if he cannot
nickname given to group of judges that was appointed by John Adams the night before he left office. He appointed them to go to the federal courts to have a long term federalist influence, because judges serve for life instead of limited terms.
Marbury vs. Madison
Supreme Court decision of 1803 that created the precedent of judicial review by ruling as unconstitutional part of the Judiciary Act of 1789.
(1803) Originally, was a meeting to discuss the purchase of the city of New Orleans as means of a port. Napolean was on the verge of war with European powers, and had to forego plans of a vast colony in North America (as well as needing money). Sold the Louisiana territory (then an unknown, massive tract of land) at the cost of $15 million. Doubled the size of the United States at the time, and was a triumph for Jefferson
Jefferson's Agrarian Vision was Thomas Jefferson's idea of an agricultural society based on free labor. Jefferson wanted productive farm families to settle in the west. He felt that sending meat and grain to Europe in exchange for manufactured goods would prove very rewarding
Act passed by Congress in 1807 prohibiting American ships from leaving for any foreign port.
The author of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, Madison was also the father of the Federalist party and the fourth President of the United States. He was President during the war of 1812 and was also Vice-President under Jefferson. He was a great statesman but was not a strong president.
Treaty of Fort Wayne
William Henry Harrison, governor of Indiana Territory, realized the need for land to attract settlers and reach statehood.
Harrison rounded up several Natives, and in the Treaty of Fort Wayne in September 1809, the Natives ceded millions of acres of land.
This treaty outraged numerous tribes that hadn't been there.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
An attack made by American General "Mad Anthony Wayne" against invading Indians from the northwest. The defeat of the Indians ended the alliance made with the British and Indians
brother of the Prophet, chief of the Shawnees, as the leader of the Indian military efforts, he realized that they could only defeat the whites and take back the Northwest if they united, so he set out down the Mississippi river to visit tribes and persuade them to join him in the Tecumseh confederacy and battle the whites who had wrongly taken their land through treaties.
British practice of taking any sailors (not just British) and forcing them into military service if needed in an emergency. Infuriated Jefferson and American merchants
War of 1812
War fought between the United States and Britain from June 1812 to January 1815, largely over British restrictions on American shipping.
Members of Congress, predominantly from the South and West, who aggressively pushed for a war against Britain after their election in 1810.
when Federalists became a minority, in all states except New England, ideas of secession reached a climax and delegates from all New England States met in Hartford, Connecticut, December 15, 1814, to discuss grievances against the Madison administration. There ideas of secession became irrelevant when news of a peace treaty and victory in New Orleans reached the states.
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty signed in December 1814 between the United States and Britain that ended the War of 1812.
Battle of New Orleans
Decisive American war of 1812 victory over British troops in January 1815 that ended any British hopes of gaining control of the lower Mississippi River Valley.
He was the fifth President of the United States. He is the author of the Monroe Doctrine. Proclaimed that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars
"Era of Good Feelings"
The period from 1817 to 1823 in which the disappearance of the Federalists enabled the Republicans to govern in a spirit of seemingly nonpartisan harmony.
known as transcontinental treaty, purchased Florida from Spain. Established western boundary for US and prevented Seminoles from invading Georgia
Declaration by President James Monroe in 1823 that the western Hemisphere was to be closed off to further European colonization and that the United States would not interfere in the internal affairs of European nations
Panic of 1819
Although Madison and Monroe had supported the National Bank, it's tightening of loan policies in 1818 triggered the Panic of 1819, a severe depression.
Sectional Compromise in Congress in 1820 that admitted Missouri to the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state and prohibited slavery in the northern Louisiana Purchase territory
John Q. Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
Election of 1824
No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain."
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." (responsible for the Missouri Compromise). Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
a wealthy Tennessee planter and a general in the state militia, set off in pursuit of the Creeks (Indians in the south west who were being supplied by Spaniards in Florida). On March 27, 1814, Jackson's men took terrible revenge on the Indians, slaughtering women and children along with warriors, and the tribe ceded most of its lands to the U.S. and retreated westward. ( increased Jackson's popularity)
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power; practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs
A small group of Jackson's friends and advisors who were especially influential in the first years of his presidency. Jackson conferred with them instead of his regular cabinet. Many people didn't like Jackson ignoring official procedures, and called it the "Kitchen Cabinet" or "Lower Cabinet"
Peggy Eaton Scandal
Social scandal; John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake before her husband died in 1828; cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton; Jackson sided with Eatons; affair helped dissolve cabinet.
Indian Removal Act
President Andrew Jackson's measure that allowed state officials to override federal protection of Native Americans
Worcester vs. Georgia
Worchester v. Georgia: 1832 - The Supreme Court decided Georgia had no jurisdiction over Cherokee reservations. Georgia refused to enforce decision and President Jackson didn't support the Court.
Trail of Tears
The forced march in 1838 of the Cherokee Indians from their homelands in Georgia to the Indian Territory in the West.
"Tariff of Abominations"
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South; The bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor, thus favoring Northern manufacturers. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them and causing more sectionalist feelings.
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification; (1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
Sectional crisis in the early 1830s in which a states' rights party in South Carolina attempted to nullify federal laws
A term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836.
McCulloch vs. Maryland
In 1819, the state of Maryland taxed banknotes produced by the bank of the United States. The state claimed that the bank was unconstitutional. Using implied powers, Marshall declared that the bank was indeed constitutional and ruled that Maryland was forbidden from taxing the bank.
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward
In 1810, this further expanded the meaning of the contract clause of the Constitution. After the Republicans gained control of the New Hampshire government, they tried to revise the Dartmouth College charter, to make it a public school instead of private. Daniel Webster defended the college, he argued that the charter was in fact a contract that was protected by the same doctrine that the court had already upheld in Fletcher v. Peck. The Court ruled for Dartmouth, proclaiming the corporation charters such as the one the colonial legislature had granted the college were contracts and this inavidable. This decision placed important restrictions on the ability of state governments to control corporations.
Gibbons vs. Ogden
Happend in 1824, in this case the Court strengthend Congress's power to regulate interstate commerce. The state of New York had granted the steamboat company of Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston the exclusive right to carry passangers on the Hudson River to New York City. They then gave Aaron Ogden the business of carrying passangers across the river between New York and New Jersey. But Thomas Gibson, with a lisence granted under an act of Congress, began competing with Odgen for ferry traffic. Ogden brought a suit against him and won in the New York Courts. Gibbson then appealed to the Surpreme Court. The important question in this case was whether Congress had the power to give Gibbson a lisence to operate his ferry superseded the state of New Yorks power to grant Ogden a monopoly. Marshall claimed that the power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce was "complete in itself" and might be "exercised to its utmost extent." Ogden's state-granted monopoly was void.
Panic of 1837
Economic downturn. When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Martin Van Buren
created the system of party government. claimed that political parties were necessary to "check" the government from abusing its power. created the first political machine. denounced the American System and opposed the Whigs. (Jackson's sucessor)