CIE IGCSE: Biological Molecules (B3) and Diet (6.1)
Terms in this set (37)
Define: Balanced diet
A diet which provides an adequate intake of the nutrients and energy needed to sustain the body and ensure good health and growth.
Dietry requirements of child
A balanced diet, but with plenty of:
Protein for growth
Carbohydrates for energy
Calcium for bones and teeth
Dietry requirements for active adult
A balanced diet but with extra carbohydrates for energy and protein for muscle repair
Dietry requirements for pregnant woman
A balanced diet but with plenty of:
Iron salts for blood
Calcium for baby's bones
Protein for making new cells
Dietry requirements if breast feeding
A balanced diet of proteins, carbs, vitamin D and calcium for growth and development
Basal metabolic rate - varies for different people but an adult requires about 7000kJ a day. Men have a higher one than females
A severe lack of nutrition resulting in restricted growth and development particularly of muscles leading to weakness. Resistance to disease is reduced.
Insufficient fibre in the diet leading to difficulty in passing faeces. Diet lacking in fibre can also lead to bowel cancer.
CHD (coronary heart disease)
When blockages are formed on the walls of the coronary artery that restricts blood flow in the artery decreasing oxygen supply. Associated with high fats diets.
Severely overwieght - associated with high blood pressure and heart disease as it is a result of eating too many calories (through sugars or fats). Can lead to diabetes, stress on joints and social rejection.
Lack of vitamin C
Bleeding gums and wounds - scurvy. In extreme cases, anaemia and heart failure may occur.
Lack of vitamin D
Rickets (soft bones) as the uptake of calcium ions from the blood are necessary for the manufacture of hard bone can't occur without vitamin D
Lack of iron
Anaemia. Lack of energy and can lead to coma and death. Lead to deficiency in production of hem groups.
Lack of calcium
Brittle bones / osteoporosis. Bones become weak and/or don't develop properly.
Deficiency diseases such as Kwashiorkor (swollen abdomen caused by protein deficiency) or Marasmus (Carb and protein deficiency leading to thinness with bones clearly visible beneath skin). Or excess calories in the diet leading to obesity or gout.
swollen belly and skin rash caused by severe acute malnutrition with low protein levels. Leads to a fluid imbalance.
a wasted condition of the body caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients
Caused by bacteria that produces a toxin that causes secretion of chloride ions into the small intestine, causing osmotic movement of water into the gut, causing diarrhoea, dehydration and loss of salts from blood
Watery faeces which can be treated by oral rehydration therapy which consists of drinking a solution of mineral ions to replace the water lost and ions drawn from the walls of the intestines
made of fatty acids and glycerol. Don't mix with water. Needed for long term energy storage, insulation, chemicals such as hormones and for membrane structure.
Elements in fats
Carbon and hydrogen mostly, with a little oxygen.
Made of amino acids and needed for growth and repair. Meats and fish are a good source of these.
Elements in proteins
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen (and a little sulphur)
Elements that are needed in small quantities in the diet, e.g. iron, calcium, sodium, etc. Deficiencies can lead to diseases such as anemia and osteoporosis.
Chemicals needed in the diet that help perform various chemical reactions in the body. Deficiencies in these can lead to diseases such as scurvy and rickets.
These are starches and other polysaccharides. They are a slower release of energy and sugars in the diet.
A complex carbohydrate made of glucose molecules. Also called amylose. Broken down by amylase.
A complex carbohydrate used as glucose storage inside human cells (e.g. live and muscle cells)
These are sugars which are a quick source of energy.
Elements in carbohydrates
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
The solvent in which all biological reactions happen. Needed to keep you hydrated. Necessary for life.
Roughage/cellulose. This is needed in the diet to aid passage of the food through the digestive tract.
Any excess or deficiency in the diet of nutrients.
Test for fats/lipids
Use ethanol and mix thoroughly. A positive result will be a cloudy suspension as the fats are emulsified.
Test for reducing sugars
Use benedict's solution. Place in a water bath and look for a colour change from blue to green, to orange, to brick red.
Test for proteins
Use buiret solution. A positive result is from blue to purple in colour.
Test for starch
Use iodine solution. Positive result is a change from brown to dark blue/black.
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