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nursing 3 and 4 important things to remember

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side effect
an unintended secondary effect of a medication
therapeutic effect
an expected or predictable physiological response to medication
what is medication used for?
1) used to produce a local or systemic physiological effect
2) used in the treatment, diagnosis, and prevention of disease
what are considerations for elderly?
metabolism is slower and normal doses may build to toxic levels; observe for signs of adverse actions and drug toxicity
elixir
a clear liquid containg water and/or alcohol; designed for oral use;usually has sweetener added
syrup
a medication dissolved in concentrated sugar solution; may contain flavoring to make medication taste better
PO
oral or by mouth
Sub Q
subcutaneous-injection of sterile medication into subcutaneous tissue
IM
intramuscular- injection of sterile medication into a mucle. it has a more rapid systemic effect than oral or subcutaneous
IV
intavenous- injection of sterile medication into a vein. this has a very rapid systemic effect
ID
intradermal- injection of sterile medication into the dermis of the skin
SL
sublingual- medication dissolved under the tongue and absorbed through the blood vessels
PR
rectal- medication placed in the rectum for absorption through the mucous membranes
what are the four common types of medication orders?
standing, prn, single, stat
what is a standing order?
for multiple doses of a medication that may be administered either until it is canceled by the provider or until prescribed number of doses have been given
what is a PRN order?
for medication may be administered when the patient requires it, the provider sets limits for the interval between doses
what is a single order?
for medication to be administered once at a specified time
what is a stat order?
for a single dose of medication to be administered immediately
who is the only one allowed to carry the keys and have access to the narcotic locker?
Nurses
a medication order must contain what?
drug name, amount of drug per dose, number of doses, route of administration, frequency or number of times per day the drug is to be taken, signature of ordering provider
corpsman/technician do not take what?
verbal orders
what are the six rights of medication administration?
right medication, right dose, right route, right time, right patient, right documentation
what are the three medication checks?
medication is first located, after the medication is prepared, just before administering to patient at the bedside
what does ad lib mean?
freely as desired
what does bid stand for?
twice a day
what does gtt stand for?
drops
what does kvo stand for?
keep vein open
what does im stand for?
intramusculary
what does IV stand for?
intravaneously
what does npo stand for?
nothing by mouth
what does od stand for?
right eye
what does os stand for?
left eye
what does ou stand for?
both eyes
what does pr stand for?
per rectum
what does prn stand for?
when needed or requested
what does qid stand for?
four times a day
most errors occur when we fail to follow what?
the six rights
all medication errors must be what?
reported immediately
a what is filled out for the medication error and the doctor is notified?
incident report
what schedual has the highest abuse potential?
schedual I
what schedule has the lowest abuse potential?
schedual IV
in the metric system what do you never use?
fractions
antidysrhythmics what is its action?
prevention or correction of irregular heart rhythms
antidysrhythmics what is examples of it?
lidocaine or atropine
antihypertensives what is its action?
controls high blood pressure
antihypertensives what is examples of it?
atenolol or lisinopril
anitcoagulants what is its action?
inhibits clotting of the blood
anticoagulants what is examples of it?
warfarin or heparin
antacids what is its action?
used to neutralize acidity in the digestive system
antacids what is examples of it?
aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, or zantac
antiflatulants what is its action?
used for excess gas in the intestinal tract
aniflatulants what is examples of it?
simethicone or mylicon
nonopioid analgesics (non-narctic) what is its action?
relieves pain and inflammation
nonopioid analgesics (non-narcotics) what is examples of it?
aspirin and acetaminophen
nonsteriodal anti-inflammatories (nsaids) what is its action?
counteraction of body tissue inflammation
nonsteriodal anti-inflammatories (nsaids) what is examples of it?
ibuprofen or naproxen
anti-infectives (antibiotics) what is its action?
inhibits growth of or destroys microorganisms
anti-infectives (antibiotics) what is examples of it?
penicillin, tetracycline, or bacitracin
vaccines and toxoids what is its action?
artificially induced immunity to a specific disease or toxin
vaccines and toxoids what is examples of it?
toxoids- tetanus or diphtheria
vaccines- hepatities a or influenza
local anesthetic agents what is its action?
produce numbness in local area
local anesthetic agents what is examples of it?
xyllocaine
antipsychotic agents what is its action?
improves or moderates mental symptoms ranging from anxiety to psychosis
antipsychotic agents what is examples of it?
zyprexia, clozapine or risperdal
insulin what is its action?
decreases blood sugar by transport of glucose into the body tissures and cells
insulin what is examples of it?
novolin
oral hypoglycemics what is its action?
regulates amount of glucose in the blood
oral hypoglycemics what is examples of it?
glucophage or glyburide
cathartics what is its action?
acts as a cleanser that produces watery evacuation of intestinal contents through increased peristalsis
cathartics what is examples of it?
bisacodyl
stool softeners what is its action?
promotes bowel movement by adding water and or bulk to stool
stool softeners what is examples of it?
docusate
antiemetics what is its action?
prevention or relief of nausea/vomiting
antiemetics what is examples of it?
promethazine or metoclopramide
antidiarrheal what is its action?
control of diarrhea
antidiarrheal what is examples of it?
loperamide, kalin and pectin
what does route of medication administration depends on?
condition of the patient, nature of the drug, rate of absorption via one route
what is solids?
in the form of tablets, capsules or lozenges
what is liquids?
in the form of syrup, elixir or suspension
do not give medication by mouth if the patient is what?
lying down, has a poor gag reflex, is unconscious, or nauseous
do not give enteric coated medications with what?
milk or antacids
do not what enteric coated or sustained relases medications?
crush
what do you use to idenify your patient?
name and date of birth
when applying opthalmic medication what position do you have your patient lying in?
supine or sitting position with the head tilted back and to the side in which medication willl be administered
what do you do to an adult ear when applying medication
pull on the top of the ear up and back
what do you do to a child ear when applying medication
pull on the lower half down and back
when you spread the buttocks how far do you intoduce the medication?
about a finger lenghth
what are fequently used solutions for enema administration?
soap and water, normal saline, hypertonic solutions. fleets enema is the most common
what are injections given for?
patient cannot take medictions by mouth, hasten the action of the drug, digestive juices would counteract the effect of the drug given PO