AP Psych: Chapter 1- Memory
Terms in this set (56)
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Parts of Memory
(file folders being filled with information)
stuff you keep
(file cabinet holding the files)
going back and gathering info
(pulling files out of the cabinet)
Atkinson and Shiffrin model of memory
the idea that we form memories in three stages:
1. Recording information (sensory memory)
2. Processing it and encoding it through rehearsal (short- term memory)
3. Long-Term Memory
Why is "working memory" a more useful term for the way we process memory?
When you process incoming stimuli, you also retrieve long-term memory. Your memory then associates long-term and short-term memory as it works
processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing
Ex. multitasking, watching TV while eating breakfast
How do you automatically process?
Space: Your brain takes note of where things appear, so you can recall location to remember information
Time: You remember order of sequence, so you can recount actions in order
Frequency: You unintentionally maintain track of how many times things happen
How can effortful processing become more automatic?
List effortful processing strategies
-practicing muscle memory
What is the spacing effect an example of?
How does the spacing effect relate to distributed practice and recall?
the spacing effect states that information is better retained when distributed over time, so distributed practice and recall will allow you to retain information longer
Define the serial position effect and differentiate between the primacy and recency effects
Serial position effect: our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Primary: remembering something first in a list due to being repeated most often
Recency: remembering something last because it's fresh in memory
How does shallow processing differ from deep processing?
Shallow processing: remembering a word by referring to it's appearance (visual encoding) or sound (acoustic) while deep processing is remembering a word based on its meaning (semantic)
How does meaning help aid retrieval or reduce the encoding time and effort?
adding meaning to something you learn makes it easier to recall
Discuss how the self-reference effect aids recall
relating information back to yourself adds more meaning that is processed more deeply and remains more accessible
Explain why chunking and mnemonic devices are useful in aiding memory
allows you to organize information into meaningful arrangements or remember tricks
How does organizing new material into categories help us recall it?
you are better reminded of the material through common concepts and themes
the ability to immediately recall information after stimuli
How are echoic and iconic memory function as a part of sensory memory?
Iconic Memory: momentary photographic memory
Echoic Memory: momentary auditory memory
*Both immediate recalls of stimuli
Discuss the capacity of short-term/working memory & long-term memory
Short term memory= 7 plus or minus 2 bits of information
Long term memory= limitless
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation (specific neurons make long-term memory)
LONG TERM MEMORY CAN CONTAIN INFINITE NUMBER OF THINGS
Ex. Alzheimers, blow to head
boosts activity and available proteins to the brain's memory foaming areas; stronger emotions mean stronger memories. Specific to anger and fear; associated with mood-congruent
explicit memories that are like a light going off
Differentiate between explicit and implicit memories
Explicit: memories of facts and experiences
Implicit: stuff you automatically do without thought, motor skills created by muscle memory
How do the terms declarative and nondeclarative apply to explicit and implicit memory?
Declarative applies to explicit, in which someone can declare that they can do something (facts, personal)
Nondeclarative applies to implicit because one doesn't declare each step of the process, they just remember how to do it subconsciously Ex. Riding a bike
How does the hippocampus function in the encoding of explicit memories?
Parts of the hippocampus allows people to associate names with faces, also sorts memories during night. Better sleep, better memory.
Describe the role that sleep plays in memory consolidation
During sleep, the hippocampus and brain cortex are suspected of replaying the day's experiences and transferring them to long-term storage.
How does the cerebellum play a role in memory processing?
develops certain conditioned reflexes; forms and stores implicit memory
the inability of adults to retrieve memories of their first years of life due to the absence of language and an underdeveloped hippocampus
Differentiate between the three measures of retention: recall, recognition, and relearning
Recall: retrieval without cues
Recognition: involves retrieval cues to "jog" memory
Relearning: learning material the second time
What ways can context aid memory recall?
being in the same situation as previously and noticing clues that lead to the original memory
Differentiate between state-dependent memory and context-dependent memory
State-Dependent Memory: memories are better recalled when you're in that same state; Memory is aided or impeded by a person's internal state
Context-Dependent Memory: memories are better recalled in the same context
How does mood-congruent memory influence the retrieval and recall of other memories?
emotions that become good or bad events become retrieval clues
our brain selectively doesn't encode details that are irrelevant to distinguishing something without effortful processing
after longer periods of time without using information, the info is forgotten
the memory is there, but you can't retrieve it; "it's on the tip of my tongue"
something that you have previously learned is preventing you from learning something later, especially for similar items
learning something new makes it harder to recall older information
forgetting memories by pushing them to the back of our minds or refusing to acknowledge them to protect our self-concept or reduce anxiety
learned list of nonsense syllables and tested his memory of it from 20 minutes to 30 days later, in which he rapidly forgot most of the list until leveling off and remembering the other syllables until the end of experimentation
Who created the misinformation effect?
information acquired after an event alters actual memory of an event
allows you to retain a memory, but not the context in which it was acquired as the weakest part of a memory is its source
When is a child's eyewitness description factual?
when they're asked questions with neutral wording
What is the controversy surrounding repressed constructed memories of abuse?
Therapists are accusing patients of having repressed memories of abuse when they don't, and continual sessions lead them to believe the false accusations. FEARS: -innocent people are falsely accused -people being disbelieved when they come forward saying they were abused
What are the seven tips for improving memory?
1. Rehearse repeatedly
2. Make the material meaningful
3. Activate retrieval cues
4. Use mnemonic devices
5. Minimize interference
6. Sleep more
7. Test your own knowledge
What causes encoding failure?
trauma or substance abuse
can't create new memories after amnesia, but can remember those memories they made before the incident
forget memories made before the accident
What are the different types/examples of effortful processing?
What are the theories of forgetting?
long-term memory is increased when some of the learning period is devoted to retrieving the to-be-remembered information through testing with proper feedback
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
implicit memory effect in which exposure to a stimulus influences response to a later stimulus