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Psych Exam 3
Terms in this set (76)
automatic evaluation; good vs bad, arousal vs not aroused, positive vs negative
long lasting good/bad feeling that do not have an identifiable object/trigger; influence people's thoughts and behaviors
Example: Getting cut off in traffic can make a person feel angry (emotion), but for no apparent reason a person can be irritable (mood).
specific feelings based on physiological response, subjective evaluation, cognitive interpretation; immediate, specific negative or positive response to environmental events or internal thoughts; typically interrupts what is happening
Book uses emotion and affect interchangeably
a subjective experience of emotion, such as feeling scared, but not the emotion itself
innate, evolutionarily adaptive, and universal (shared across cultures). These emotions include anger, sadness, fear, disgust, happiness, surprise, contempt.
blends of primary emotions. There are numerous secondary emotions like remorse, guilt, submission, shame, love, bitterness, jealousy
how positive or negative emotions are
how arousing emotions are
Example of arousal and valence continuum
Imagine that you are walking along and find a $5 bill on the ground. This experience will most likely make you happy, so you will judge it to have positive valence. It also might make you slightly aroused (increase your autonomic responses somewhat).
What brain structures/systems process emotion?
The limbic system processes emotion. The term limbic system is used mainly in a rough, descriptive way rather than as a means of directly linking brain areas to specific emotional functions.
receives and integrates somatosensory signals from the entire body. It is also involved in the subjective awareness of bodily states, such as sensing your heartbeat, feeling hungry, or needing to urinate. Given that emotions produce bodily responses, it is not surprising that the insula plays an important role in the experience of emotion. Imaging studies have found that the insula is particularly active when people experience disgust (such as when exposed to bad smells) or observe facial expressions of disgust in other people. Damage to the insula interferes with the experience of disgust and also with recognizing disgust expressions in others.The insula is also activated in a variety of other emotions, including anger, guilt, and anxiety.
processes the emotional significance of stimuli, and generates immediate emotional and behavioral reactions. The processing of emotion in the amygdala is a circuit that has developed over the course of evolution to protect animals from danger. Scientists have established the amygdala as the brain structure most important for emotional learning, as in the development of classically conditioned fear responses.
Paths of information
Fast path: sensory information → thalamus → amygdala → response
Slow path: sensory information → thalamus → visual cortex → amygdala → response
What are the problems with lie detector tests?
Investigator has to make subjective judgement; Most people who fail the tests are actually telling the truth and are simply anxious about taking the test. The polygraph cannot tell whether a response is due to lying, nervousness, or anything else arousing
physical experience leads to emotion OR interpretation of physical changes lead person to feel emotion; Example: We are sad because we are crying; We are happy because we are smiling. Tiger→ fear arousal → fear; physiological component;
Pencil Study: facial expressions trigger the experience of emotions, not the other way around→ this idea as the facial feedback hypothesis. James Lange later tested the idea by having people hold a pencil between their teeth or with their mouths in a way that produced a smile or a frown. When participants rated cartoons, those in a posed smile found the cartoons the funniest.
Subjective component: the emotion you feel is subjective
Schachter-Singer (Two Factor) Theory
proposed that the physiological response to all emotional stimuli was essentially the same, which they called undifferentiated physiological arousal. The arousal was just interpreted differently, depending on the situation and given a label. According to this theory, when people experience arousal, they initiate a search for its source. The search for cognitive explanation, or label, is often quick and straightforward since a person generally recognizes the event that led to the emotional state.
Cannon Bard Theory
Proposed that information about emotional stimuli is sent to the mind and body separately and simultaneously. As a result, mind and body experience emotions independently. According to theory, information from emotion producing stimulus is processed in subcortical structures/limbic system. Structures/systems send info to brain and body. As a result, people experience 2 separate things at roughly the same time: an emotion- produced in the cortex, and physical reactions- produced in body.
Excitation transfer: is a similar form of misattribution. Here, residual physiological arousal caused by one event is transferred to a new stimulus.
How can you control your emotions?
Change the location, change the meaning, find humor, distract yourself
What are universal emotions?
emotions that remain constant in experience and expression
What cultural differences exist for emotion?
differ in degree of expression
What gender differences exist for emotion?
little difference in experience of emotion; women tend to be more expressive, men tend to show more of certain emotions like anger; display rules
What role do emotions play in decision making?
Affect helps in decision making; if you see something positive you will approach it, if you see something negative you will avoid it
What role do emotions play in decision making?
Emotions teach us rules; loss aversion- tendency to be more affected by losses than gains
What role do emotions play in decision making?
Emotions as feedback: negative emotions initiate planning for similar future circumstances; similar to operant conditioning
Generate counterfactuals--alternatives to what happened
Example: Researchers coded emotional reactions of silver and bronze medalists during '92 Olympics. Participants shown still shots of winners face without seeing medal; asked to rate positive emotion on individual's face. Bronze shown to express more positive emotion than silver because generating counterfactuals.
Upward counterfactual: imagining a better possible outcome; usually make individual feel worse or more negative emotion
Downward counterfactual: imagining a worse possible outcome; usually makes an individual feel better or more positive
**Upward is helpful when looking to improve. If we always feel good about our performance/action then we won't change for the better.
How do emotions motivate us?
Emotions are triggers for us to change. Motivations used as signal that something is wrong
What is Self-Discrepancy Theory?
You have your own goals and standards vs what you are actually doing. Sometimes they match and sometimes they are imbalanced. Discrepancy→ (negative) emotion → Behavior change; behavior change not always ideal
What is motivation?
factors that energize and direct behavior; why do you eat? Why do you study?
What are the differences between needs and drives?
Needs: primary factors that direct motivation; need for food (to survive), need to achieve
Drives: psychological states that encourage behaviors to seek out and acquire needs; what encourages you to eat regularly? Hunger; what encourages you to study? Performance anxiety; drive states usually make us uncomfortable
Needs→ drives→ behavior; Example: food→ hunger→ eating
What is Drive-Reduction Theory? What do we mean when we say the goal of DRT is homeostasis?
a lot of our motivation comes from trying to alleviate/reduce negative feeling of drive state; deprivation of needs create arousal; we are driven to reduce that arousal; goal of DRT is homeostasis (like with thermostat, don't want too low or high
What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation?
Extrinsic: external consequences (ex. money , awards, treats, grades, etc.); operant conditioning; can be used as consequences as well
Intrinsic: personal motivators or things you enjoy to do naturally
Taking an individual who is intrinsically motivated and providing external motivators causes extinction of the behavior or decrease the motivation. (Book It program example); It is better to let people be motivated by their own interests/emotional system.
How do you make something intrinsically motivating?
three major intrinsically motivating factors:
Autonomy: sense of volition/choice (romeo & juliet effect)
Competence: sense of being capable
Relatedness: sense of belonging
Shift focus from extrinsic factor (e.g. grades) to intrinsic factors
Autonomy: being able to choose career path
Competence: showing you know your stuff
Relatedness: respect from others
What is problem focused coping?
dealing directly with the problem that caused the emotional distress in the first place (apologizing); implementation intentions: I feel bad because i didn't live up to my promises, so in the future i will go through with my promises. (if, then)
What is emotion focused coping?
trying to "cancel out" the emotion; (eating, alcohol/drugs); negative emotion will come back, short term emotion relief;
*Both problem and emotion focused coping aimed at alleviating negative emotions
What are the social emotions?
Most emotions convey social meaning (when happy you want others to know) some are especially social however...
Felt more intensely in public and when felt in interaction with people we are closer to, seem to come up when we are in threat of losing relationship and aimed at saving relationship; encourage interpersonal success
Guilt: feeling bad for wronging someone you care about
Embarrassment: feeling bad for showing a lack of competence
Jealousy: concern your partner will leave you
**All encourage social behavior to enact change
Empathy: capability to experience other's emotional states; probably the greatest of all the social emotions; some people have a diminished capacity to experience empathy (sociopaths/psychopaths)
What is personality?
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Personality distinguishes us; is enduring, organized, dynamic and adaptive, psychophysical
What are temperaments?
general tendencies to feel or act in certain ways (activity level, emotionality, sociability); environment interacts with temperaments to shape personality traits; genes act to produce temperaments.
What is Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?
unconscious forces—such as wishes, desires, and hidden memories—determine behavior; mind is like an ice-burg: conscious mind/ego (operates on reality principle), pre-conscious mind/superego (operates on morality principle), unconscious mind/ID (operates on pleasure principle)
SuperEgo=angel; acts as a brake on the id. Largely unconscious, the superego develops in childhood and is the internalization of parental and societal standards of conduct. It is a rigid structure of morality, or conscience.
Ego=self; mediates between the id and the superego. That is, the ego tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of the superego. The ego operates according to the reality principle, which involves rational thought and problem solving. Some aspects of the ego's operations are open to conscious awareness.For example, the ego allows the person to delay gratification so that the wishes of the id can be realized while accommodating the rules of the superego. According to psychodynamic theory, unique interactions of the id, ego, and superego produce individual differences in personality.
I.D.=devil; exists at the most basic level: completely submerged in the unconscious. The id operates according to the pleasure principle, which directs the person to seek pleasure and to avoid pain. Freud called the force that drives the pleasure principle the libido. Although today the term libido has a sexual connotation, Freud used it to refer more generally to the energy that promotes pleasure seeking. In other words, the libido acts on impulses and desires.The id is like an infant, crying to be fed whenever hungry, held whenever anxious.
What are defense mechanisms?
prompted by unconscious thoughts and desires; unconscious mental strategies that the mind uses to protect itself from distress.
Why is Freud still relevant?
still relevant because he brought a lot of attention to psychology. He highlighted the possibility of non-biological causes for neuroses and highlighted that the unconscious mind really is important
What are the defense mechanisms?
Repression: suppressing unwanted desires/memories
Reaction Formation: reacting against one's own unsatisfied impulses
Rationalization: developing an alternative explanation or excuse for undesired behavior
Denial, projection, displacement, sublimation
What are the criticisms of the psychoanalytic perspective of personality?
Based on introspection and case studies, not scientific experimentation.
Difficult to test: If the subconscious represses information,how can you study it?
Sample problems: Most subjects were wealthy women of the sexually repressed Victorian era. Not too surprising that they were so willing to talk about sex during a private session.
What is the humanistic perspective?
meant to complement psychoanalytic theory; believed people are fundamentally good; emphasized personal growth; emphasize personal experience,belief systems, the uniqueness of the human condition, and the inherent goodness of each person; propose that people seek to fulfill their potential for personal growth through greater self-understanding- referred to as self-actualization
What is Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
The Hierarchy of Needs: self-actualization is on top, encouraged unconditional positive regard;
Pyramid from top down: self-actualization, esteem needs, belongingness and love needs, safety needs, physiological needs
What is self-actualization?
achieving one's full potential, including creative activities; propose that people seek to fulfill their potential for personal growth through greater self-understanding
What is the person centered approach?
emphasized people's subjective understandings of their lives
What is positive unconditional regard?
parents should accept and prize their children no matter how the children behave. Parents might express disapproval for children's bad behavior, but at the same time they should express their love for the children.
What are criticisms of humanistic perspective?
Many of the same criticisms as Freud: not scientific, largely philosophical; concepts are vague and subjective (focused on individuals rather than general trends)
What is the difference between an idiographic approach and a nomothetic approach? Which personality theories fit under each of these different approaches?
Idiographic Approach: attempt to understand the individual as an individual; case study approach
Nomothetic Approach: attempt to understand how an individual compares to others; trait theory approach
What is a trait? What do we mean when we say they exist along a continuum?
patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior that is relatively consistent over time and across situations; Traits exist on a continuum so that most people fall in the middle and few fall at the extremes. For example, people range from very introverted to very extroverted but most fall somewhere in the middle; can be biologically based
What are the Big Five personality traits?
Conscientiousness: Organized vs. disorganized, Careful vs. careless, Self-disciplined vs. weak-willed
Extraversion/Introversion: Social vs. retiring. Fun-loving vs. sober, Affectionate vs. reserved
Neuroticism: Worried vs. calm, Insecure vs. secure, Self-pitying vs. self-satisfied
Agreeableness: Softhearted vs. ruthless, Trusting vs. suspicious, Helpful vs. uncooperative
Openness to new experiences: Imaginative vs. down to earth, Seeks variety vs. routine, Independent vs. conforming
What would it mean to say that someone is low/high on each these traits?
For each factor, there is a continuum from low to high. Each factor is a higher-order trait that is made up of interrelated lower order traits. For instance, conscientiousness is determined by how careful and organized a person is. Agreeableness reflects the extent to which a person is trusting and helpful. A person high in openness to experience is imaginative and independent, whereas a person low in this basic trait is down-to-earth and conformist.
What is the Biological Basis of Personality (BIS/BAS)?
Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)- right prefrontal cortex, strongly associated with neuroticism;
Behavioral Activation system(BAS): left prefrontal cortex, strongly associated with extraversion; people who are INTROverted tend to have less left prefrontal cortex activation
Hormones: testosterone, oxytocin (trust hormone), and agreeableness
How do person X situation approaches to personality attempt to explain our behavior?
Person X Situation Approach: currently is accepted that personality DOES predict behavior; but that it is predictive validity varies based on context
What's the difference between a strong and weak situation? How will that influence behavior?
Strong Situation: high rules situations, require a great deal of control over behavior; Example: class, church, game day, etc.
Weak Situation: low rules situations, allow individual personalities to come out; Example: parties
What defines attachment?
emotional tie between 2 individuals; characterized by: desire for physical contact, anxiety when separated (don't want to see no distress or too much); serves obvious biological function, can be more than that also contact comfort
Different attachment styles: partly due to temperament, partly due to parenting style; fussy/calm temperament; interaction between child and parent; tested using Ainsworth's Strange Situation Test
Strange Situation Test: child placed intro strange situation, usually an observation room full of toys, researchers watch from one way mirror, parent sits in chair in room
What are the different attachment styles?
Secure: in presence of caregiver baby plays and explores; In presence of stranger behavior doesn't change; When caregiver leave baby has moderate distress; when caregiver returns baby seeks contact and is easily calmed
Insecure Avoidant (20%): in presence of caregiver baby stays close and has less free exploration; in presence of stranger baby is uneasy; when caregiver leaves baby has almost no distress; when caregiver returns baby avoids attachment figure; doesn't seem to care about interacting with caregiver- problems with social/cognitive development
Insecure Anxious/Ambivalent (10%): in presence of caregiver baby stays close and has less free exploration; in presence of stranger baby feels uneasy; when caregiver leaves baby has extreme distress; when caregiver returns baby seeks out caregiver but is inconsolable; attached to caregiver but doesn't show full trust/security in caregiver
How do these attachment styles affect adult relationships?
Avoidant attachment: avoid closeness and less invested in relationships; feel as relationships are fleeting
Anxious/Ambivalent: possessive and jealous; quick to get into relationships and get serious fast; can get dependent on these relationships; insecure- feel relationships are fragile
Secure Attachment: easy to get close to other, not too dependent, & have satisfying relationships
What did Harry and Margaret Harlow's research on primate attachment influence our understanding of human attachment?
Research conducted on monkey mothers and their babies. The babies were taken away from monkey mother and introduced to either a wire mother (who only provided food) and a cloth mother who simulated emotional attachment. Research showed babies spent the majority of the day with the cloth mother and less than 1 hour on wire mother under normal circumstances. When scared the baby runs to the cloth mother. When the baby was placed into a new environment and the wire mother was introduced, the baby was not comforted and didn't run to the mother. When the cloth mother was introduced under the same circumstances, the baby immediately ran to the mother. The research implies that human babies would act the same way; The baby's sense of calm would simulate trust/sense of security in a human baby.
What are schemas?
Schema: concept that organizes & interprets information
Example: Chairs have four legs, a seat, a back. If something has these elements, it's a chair.
Children are constantly working to modify schema.
What are the 2 ways to modify schemas?
Assimilation: interpreting new information in terms of existing schemas; similar to stimulus generalization; Example: baby thinking apple is also a banana (sweet food); Boo thinks Sully (a monster) is a kitty (furry animal)
Accommodation: Adjusting current schemas to make sense of new information; existing schemas adapted/expanded; New schemas developed; Example: subdivided different fruits or even different types of apples; more stimulus discrimination
What are Piaget's stages of development?
Sensorimotor (0-2 years): rooting reflex (cheek brush → suckle); random movements; neuron firing begins to make connections; exploring and sensing the world around us; sensing things but not perceiving/not organized; development of motor coordination; information mostly assimilated;
Peek-a-boo will go from very exciting to very boring: children eventually gain ability for object permanence
Preoperational Stage (2-7 years): words and symbols used to represent objects; thinking tends to be one-dimensional; lacks concept of conservation; Egocentric- inability to take another's POV
False-belief test: capability to solve this problem emerges around 4 years of age
Reduction in egocentrism; ability to lie
Concrete Operational Stage (7-12 years): can grasp logical rules grounded in experience and reality; can understand basic math rules; reasoning restricted to to things they know and can interact with not abstract objects
Formal Operational Stage (12- adult): Can reason abstractly and evaluate logical propositions independent of personal experience
Example: If dogs are smaller than cats and cats are smaller than mice, then mice are bigger than dogs
What are Kohlberg's stages of moral development? How do children of varying ages differ in their understanding of moral and ethical questions?
Tested by presenting a moral dilemma and having people say what they would do and why. Example: Stealing medicine for a dying wife; Concerned with the reasoning, not the answer
Preconventional: avoid punishment/get rewards; Decisions based on self-interest and/or pleasurable/unpleasurable outcomes; Example: He should steal the drug because then he would have it
Conventional: follow rules because they are the rules/concern about other's disapproval; Example: "Stealing is wrong, people won't like him if he steals" or "It's unfair for the druggist to be charging so much"
Post-conventional: abstract morality/value of life/moral decisions fall in a "grey" area; Certain basic rights supersede social contracts; More deliberation concerning decision
What do we mean by Theory of Mind? Why is that important for understanding childhood developmental processes?
understanding that what is in your mind (and others') is unknown; it allows children to better understand other's emotional states; begin to understand that other's have a different view of the world
Empathy-moral emotion that allows an individual to feel what others feel
How are social, cognitive, and moral development related?
Each stage needs the other. Social development acts as a stepping stone for cognitive development, and so on and so forth
Erikson's Eight Stages of Development: Infancy
0-1 years; trust vs mistrust; Children learn that the world is safe and that people are loving and reliable.
Erikson's Eight Stages of Development: Toddler
1-3; Autonomy versus shame and doubt; Encouraged to explore the environment, children gain feelings of independence and positive self-esteem.
Erikson's Eight Stages of Development: Preschool
3-6; Initiative versus guilt; Children develop a sense of purpose by taking on responsibilities but also develop the capacity to feel guilty for misdeeds.
Erikson's Eight Stages of Development: Childhood
6-12; Industry versus inferiority; By working successfully with others and assessing how others view them, children learn to feel competent.
Erikson's Eight Stages of Development: Adolescence
12-18; Identity versus role confusion; By exploring different social roles, adolescents develop a sense of identity.
Erikson's Eight Stages of Development: Young Adulthood
18-29; Intimacy versus isolation; Young adults gain the ability to commit to long-term relationships.
Erikson's Eight Stages of Development: Middle Adulthood
30s-50s; Generativity versus stagnation; Adults gain a sense that they are leaving behind a positive legacy and caring for future generations.
Erikson's Eight Stages of Development: Old Age
60s and beyond; Integrity versus despair; Older adults feel a sense of satisfaction that they have lived a good life and developed wisdom.
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
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Psychology: Principles in Practice
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Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
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