88 terms

Revised TFM

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Terms in this set (...)

What are the meanings for the terms: narrative, narration and narrator?
*Narrative is a chain of events occurring in time and space and that follows a cause-effect logic.
*Narration is a moment-by-moment process in which a film guides us in building the story out of the plot events presented (how film provides viewer with plot information).
*Narrator is a specific diegetic or nondiegetic agent telling us the story (often, but not always, through a voice-over).
What are the differences between omniscient and restricted narration?
* Omniscient
-It knows all and can tell us whatever it wants us to know
-Unrestricted access to all aspects of the narrative
-Any character's experiences and perceptions
*Restricted narration:
-Limits the information it provides the audience to things known by a single character
-Rear Window
-Audience identifies with the character's singular perspective
-Can be unreliable
What is story?
-Implied events and explicitly presented events.
-All the narrative events that are explicitly presented on-screen.
-All the events that are implicit or that we infer to have happened but are not explicitly present in the movie.
What is plot?
-Non-diegetic material and explicitly presented events.
-The specific actions and events that the filmmakers select and the order in which they arrange this events to effectively convey the narrative to the viewer-includes non-diegetic elements.
-Specific events and elements are How (and why) do we distinguish between the story and plot of a movie?
selected and ordered to present the cause-and-effect chain of events that enables the audience to experience the narrative.
What is meant by the diegesis of a story? What is the difference between diegetic and nondiegetic elements in the plot?
* Diegesis
-Total world of the story,
-Events, characters, objects, settings, and sound that form the world
*Diegetic
-Elements that make up the world that the story takes place in
*Non Diegetic
-Things we see and hear on the screen that come from outside the world of the story
-Score music, titles and credits, third person voice over narrator
Which of the following is the most common relationship of screen duration to plot duration: summary relationship, real time, or stretch relationship? Define each one.
* Summary Relationship is most common
*Summary Relationship
-Screen duration is shorter than plot duration
*Real Time
-Screen duration corresponds directly to plot duration
Stretch Relationship
-Screen duration is longer than plot duration
Surprise
-being taken unaware, can be shocking, and our emotional response to it is generally short lived.
Suspense
-More drawn-out experience
-is the anxiety brought on by a partial uncertainty.What is the difference between surprise and suspense?
Narrative
is a chain of events occurring in time and space and that follows a cause-effect logic.
Narration
is a moment-by-moment process in which a film guides us in building the story out of the plot events presented (how film provides viewer with plot information).
Narrator
is a specific diegetic or nondiegetic agent telling us the story (often, but not always, through a voice-over).
Voice Over Narration
Narration heard concurrently and over a scene but not synchronized to any character who may be talking on the screen.
Direct Address Narration
Narration when a character breaks the "fourth wall"; (the assumed barrier between the characters on the screen and the audience) to address us directly.
Omniscient Narration
A version of third person narration in which all elements of the plot are presented from many or all potential angles
Restricted Narration
Viewer has same level of knowledge as one or a few characters
Round Characters
Complex character possessing numerous, subtle, repressed, or contradictory traits. Often develop over the course of a story
Flat Characters
A relatively uncomplicated character exhibiting few distinct traits. Flat characters don't change significantly as the story progresses.
Protagonist
Primary character whose pursuit of the goal provides the structural foundation of a movie's story.
Antagonist
The character, creature, or force that obstructs or resists the protagonist's pursuit of their goal.
Anti-Hero
An outwardly unsympathetic protagonist pursuing a morally objectionable or otherwise undesirable goal.
Inciting Incident (Catalyst)
-The event or situation during the exposition stage of the narrative that sets the rest of the narrative in motion. (Catalyst is a person or thing that precipitates an event or change)
Rising Action
Development of the action of the narrative toward a climax. (A plot is a series of relevant incidents that create suspense, interest and tension in a narrative. In literary works, a rising action includes all decisions, characters' flaws and background circumstances)
Crisis
-A critical turning point in a story in which the protagonist must engage a seemingly insurmountable obstacle.
Climax
The highest point of conflict in a conventional narrative; the protagonist's ultimate attempt to attain the goal.
Resolution
The concluding narrative events that follow the climax and celebrate or otherwise reflect upon story outcomes.
Story
In a movie, all the events we see or hear on the screen, and all the events that are implicit or that we infer to have happened but that are not explicitly presented.
Plot
specific actions and events that the filmmakers select and the order in which they arrange those events and actions to effectively convey on-screen the movie's narrative to a viewer.
Diegesis
In a narrative film, the world of the film's story. The diegesis includes events that are presumed to have occurred and actions and spaces not shown onscreen.
Diegetic Element
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Non Diegetic Element
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Story Duration
The amount of time that the entire narrative arc of a movie's story - whether explicitly presented on-screen or not-is implied to have taken to occur (could be days, weeks, months or even years).
Plot Duration
elapsed time of the events within a story that a film chooses to tell
Screen Duration
The amount of time that it has taken to present the movie's plot on-screen (running time; total time it takes to watch the movie).
What is mise-en-scène? What is the literal meaning of the phrase? What do we mean by this phrase more generally when we discuss movies?
*All of the elements of a movie scene that are organized, usually by the director, to be filmed and that are later visible onscreen including: Lighting,Set,Costumes and Make-up, Actor placement.
*Literally -"staging or putting on an action or scene".
*The overall look and feel of the movie.(The overall look and feel of a movie -the sum of everything the audience sees, hears, and experiences while viewing it
-Influences our mood as we watch).
What are the two major visual components of Mise-en-scène?
*Mise-en-scène is comprised of two major visual elements: Design and Composition.
*Design:
the process by which the look of the settings, props, lighting, and actors is determined
-set design, decor, prop selection, lighting, costuming, makeup, hairstyle.
*Composition:
-the organization, distribution, balance, and general relationship of actors and objects within the space of each shot.
What are the principal responsibilities of the production designer, and when is the production designer usually brought into the film production (during pre-production, production, or post-production?)
*Visualize the movie that will appear on screen. Overall design concept, individual sets, locations, furnishings, props, and costumes.
* Usually production designer brought into the film production during PRE-PRODUCTION.
What are the major elements of cinematic design? (see "Elements of Design")
*Setting- environment in which the film takes place.
*Decor - color and textures of interior props.
*Props (properties) - objects that help us understand characters.
*Lighting- creates mood and meaning, allows images to be recorded.
*Makeup, Hairstyles, Costume.
What is composition? What are the two major elements of composition?
*Composition:
*Composition is part of the process of visualizing and planning the design of a movie
*The organization, distribution, balance, and general relationship of stationary objects and gigues as well as of light, shade, line, and color within the frame.
*Framing (1st Element):
-The border between what the filmmaker wants us to see and everything else.
-The dimensions of height and width that provide the shape of the movies images.
*Kinesis (2nd Element):
-Movement on screen.
-The movement of objects and characters within the frame.
-The apparent movement of the frame itself.
Why do most shots in a film rely on both on-screen and offscreen spaces?
-As the frame moves it presents on the screen details that were previously offscreen, thus prompting us to be aware of the dynamic between offscreen and onscreen space.
-Most shots depend on both on-screen and offscreen space and our awareness of their interdependence reinforces the illusion of of a larger spatial
What are the essential differences between the open frame and the closed frame? (review Table 5.1 in your reading)
Open Frame
-designed to depict a world where characters move freely within an open, recognizable environment
-realistic (verisimilar) films
Closed Frame
-Designed to imply that other forces have robbed the characters of their ability to move and act freely
-unrealistic films
What are the two basic types of movement we see on-screen?
-The movement of objects and characters within the frame
-The apparent movement of the frame itself
What are "looking room" and "lead room"? And why are they important in composition? (see video tutorial "Composing the Frame")
"-Lead Room"- This shot is for the person who is throwing an object or the direction they are throwing it to.
-"Looking Room" This shot is when the person looks slightly off the camera it gives off more space at the back ground.
Properties (props)
-An object that functions as a part of the set or as a tool.
Sound Stage
The acoustical space created by the front speakers in a multichannel, surround-sound system.
Chiaroscuro
An effect where light falls unevenly or from a particular direction to create an area of contrasted light or shadow.
Framing
What we see on screen. (One single image on a strip of film. Forms border of movie image.)
Kinesis
What moves on the screen. (movement of objects and characters within the frame)
Familiar Imaging
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Blocking
How the actors move on the set in each scene and/or in conjunction with the camera. (Stage movements).
Deep Space Composition
A total visual composition that can place significant information or subjects on all three planes of the frame and thus creates an illusion of depth.
Compositional Stress
An imbalance in the rule of thirds that makes the viewer think something is wrong; can show a character and which way he's going to travel/what he's looking at
Rule of Thirds
The rule of thirds is the compositional principle that uses a grid pattern to divide and image into horizontal thirds which represent the foreground, middleground and background. This technique helps the designer and cinematographer to visualize the potential width, height and depth of any shot.
What is Cinematography? (definition)
The process of capturing moving images on film or a digital storage device.(Shooting a film).
What are the differences among a setup, a shot, and a take?
Setup- One camera position and everything associated with it.
Shot-One interrupted run of the camera.
Take-The number of time a particular shot is taken
Who is the Director of Photography? What are their general duties?
Specifically refers to the art and technique of film photography, the capture of images, and lighting effects, or to the person expert in and responsible for capturing or recording-photographing images for a film, through the selection of visual recording devices, camera angles, film stock, lenses, framing, and arrangement of lighting; the chief cinematographer responsible for a movie.
A cinematographer depends on two groups of technicians. Who are these two groups, and what is each group responsible for?
-The cinematographer relies on the assistance of the camera crew, who are divided into one group of technicians concerned with the camera and another concerned with electricity and lighting.
-AC: The first AC oversees everything having to do with the camera, lenses, supporting equipment, and the material on which the movie is being shot. The second AC prepares the slate that is used to identify each scene as it is shot; files camera reports; and, when film stock is being used, feeds that stock into magazines that are then loaded onto the camera.
-Electricity and Lighting: Consists of the gaffer (chief electrician), best boy (first assistant electrician), other electricians, and grips (all-around handypersons who work with both the camera crew and the electrical crew to get the camera and lighting ready for shooting)
How the lighting for any movie looks is determined, in part, by its source and direction. Explain these terms and the effect each has on the overall lighting. (see video tutorial "Lighting"):
-There are two sources of light: natural and artificial. Daylight is the most convenient and economical source, and in fact the movie industry made Hollywood the center of American movie production in part because of its almost constant sunshine.
- Artificial lights are called instruments to distinguish them from the light they produce. Among many kinds of these instruments, the two most basic are focusable spotlights and floodlights, which produce, respectively, hard (mirror like) and soft (diffuse) light.
-Direction: Light can be thrown onto a movie actor or setting (exterior or interior) from virtually any direction: front, side, back, below, or above. By direction, we also mean the angle of that throw, for the angle helps produce the contrasts and shadows that suggest eh location of the scene, its mood, and the time of the day. (The best-known lighting convention in feature filmmaking is the three-point system).
What are the names of the most commonly used shots used in a movie? Be able to describe them based on proximity.
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What is the rule of thirds? (review the video tutorial "Composing the Frame" from Chapter 5)
The image, divides it in horizontal thirds representing the foreground, middleground, and background planes and into vertical thirds that break up those planes into further elements. The grid assists the designer and cinematographer in visualizing the overall potential of the height, width, and depth of any cinematic space.
The movie camera can shoot from various angles. What are they? What meaning does each imply? Do these implications always hold true? (see video tutorial "Camera Angles")
-Eye-Level Shot: Made from the observer's eye level and usually implies that the camera's attitude toward the subject being photographed is neutral.
-High-Angle Shot: (also called high shot or down shot) is made with the camera above the action and typically implies the observer's sense of superiority to the subject being photographed.
-Low-Angle Shot: (or low shot) is made with the camera below the action and typically places the observer in the position of feeling helpless in the presence of an obviously superior force.
-Dutch-Angle Shot: (also called a Dutch-tilt shot or oblique-angle shot), the camera is tilted from its normal horizontal and vertical position so that it is no longer straight, giving the viewer the impression that the world in the frame is out of balance.
-Aerial-View Shot: (or birds'-eye-view shot), an extreme type of point-of-view shot, is taken from an aircraft or very high crane and implies the observer's omniscience.
Pan Shot
-Pan Shot: the horizontal movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod. This head ensures smooth panning and tilting and keeps the frame level.
Tilt Shot
-Tilt Shot: Vertical movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod. Like the pan shot, it is a simple movement with dynamic possibilities for creating meaning.
Dolly Shot
-Dolly Shot: (also known as a tracking shot or traveling shot) is one taken by a camera fixed to a wheeled support, generally known as a dolly. It permits the cinematographer to make noiseless moving shots.
Tracking Shot
-Tracking Shot: a type of dolly shot that moves smoothly with the action (alongside, above, beneath. behind, or ahead of it) when the camera is mounted on a wheeled vehicle that runs on a set of tracks.
Zoom
-Zoom: Both a lens and a type of camera movement. It has a variable focal length, which permits the camera operator during shooting to shift from the wide-angle lens (short focus) to the telephoto lens (long focus) or vice versa without changing the focus or aperture settings.
Crane Shot
-Crane Shot: made from a camera mounted on an elevating arm that, in turn, is mounted on a vehicle capable of moving by its own power. A crane may also be mounted on a vehicle that can be pushed along tracks to smooth its movement.
Handheld Camera
a small, portable, lightweight instrument that is held by the camera operator during shooting.
Steadicam
a device, attached to the operator's body, that steadies the camera, avoids the jumpiness associated with the handheld camera movement.
Key Light
the main source of light in a photograph or film.
Fill Light
illumination from a source less bright than the key light, used to soften deep shadows in a scene
Backlight
Lighting, usually positioned behind and in line with the subject and the camera, used to create highlights on the subject as a means of separating it from the background and increasing its appearance of three-dimensionality.
Lighting Ratio
The relationship and balance between illumination and shadow—the balance between key light and fill light.
Low-key Lighting
illumination that creates strong contrast between light and dark areas of the shot, with deep shadows.
High Key Lighting
Lighting that produces an image with very little contrast between darks and lights. Its even, flat illumination expresses virtually no opinions about the subject being photographed.
Halloween Lighting
light coming from underneath
Deep Focus Composition
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Shooting Angle
The level and height of the camera in relation to the subject being photographed. The five basic camera angles produce eye-level shots, high-angle shots, low-angle shots, Dutch-angle shots, and aerial-view shots.
Eye Level Shooting
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High Angle Shot
When camera location is above normal eye-level compared to the subject.
Low Angle Shot
When camera location is below normal eye-level compared to the subject.
Dutch Angle Shot
A shot in which the camera is tilted from its normal horizontal and vertical positions so that it is no longer straight, giving the viewer the impression that the world in the frame is out of balance.
Aerial-view Shot (Bird's Eye View)
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Tracking Shot
A mobile framing that travels through space forward, backward, or laterally.
Handheld Shot
A shot taken with a moving camera that is often deliberately shaky to suggest documentary footage in an uncontrolled setting.
Long Take
A shot that continues for an unusually lengthy time before the transition to the next shot.
CGI
Computer Generated Imagery
Process Shot
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Motion Capture
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