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APES Chapter 5
Terms in this set (39)
The biotic variation of different species within an ecosystem.
The variation of different natural systems within a specific region.
The biotic variation in the genomes of a specific species in an ecosystem.
The quantity of species within a specific area.
The ratio of populations of species in a specific area that shows species dominance.
The evolutionary relationships between organisms based on shared traits.
The process in which species change over time based on transferring successful genes through generations.
Evolution that occurs within a species that increases the genetic diversity of that species.
Large scale evolution that causes processes such as speciation, or creation of new phyla, families, etc.
The evolutionary development of a new species.
A random genetic change that can either have positive or negative effects on a species. This can also be caused be environmental factors, such as UV radiation.
The mixing of chromosomes during duplication that creates new genetic pairs.
An organism's full set of genes.
The traits that an organism expresses.
evolution by artificial selection
The process in which humans selectively breed organisms so that they express traits that we desire.
evolution by natural selection
The process in which traits are expressed and passed on that allow for organisms to be more fit in their environment.
The main founder of the the Theory of Evolution. Wrote the Book, "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection."
An organisms ability to survive and reproduce.
A trait that enhances an organism's fitness.
evolution by random processes
Evolution in which genetic changes are caused simply by chance and don't necessarily provide any benefit for a species' fitness.
The process in which, in small species populations, the minority genotype is slowly eliminated.
The process in which, as a cause of a drastic decrease among a population, the survivors recreate the population, with their genotypes.
The process in which a few members of population are separated from the main population, they create a new population with their genotypes.
What happens when a population is divided by a physical gap, similar to that in a founder effect. Because of new environments, the populations develop differently based on their respective needs.
The state of two populations that were once one, in which they cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
The process in which new species are formed through part of the population being separated from the main group and developing separately to the point of reproductive isolation.
The process in which new species are formed through extra sets of chromosomes being introduced in organisms, without geographic isolation. This can either occur naturally as an accident, or artificially as a result of human intervention.
The process in which diploids gain extra sets of chromosomes during sympatric speciation.
An organism with two sets of chromosomes.
The process of copying genes from other organisms and inserting them into a genetic code to produce desired traits and help growth.
genetically modified organisms
Organisms that have undergone either genetic insertions or selective breeding.
range of tolerance
The parameters of abiotic conditions in which organisms can exist.
The range of abiotic conditions that are ideal for organisms, allowing for them not only to survive, but also to grow and reproduce.
The range of abiotic and biotic conditions that organisms can live in.
The global area in which a species lives.
Organisms that can live in a wide variety of habitats, that doesn't rely on any other specific species. These have a wide range of tolerance.
Organisms that require very specific conditions and/or other organisms to live. These have a narrow range of tolerance.
The preserved remains of organisms in rock. Carbon dating is used to determine the age of these.
The process in which a significant percentage of the species in the world go extinct as the result of a major global disturbance.