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Must Knows 8,000 b.c.e. to 600 b.c.e.
Terms in this set (70)
Beginnings of agriculture - 8,000 B.C.E.
Transistion from hunter gather societies to sedentary societies based in villages and towns.
Beginnings of Bronze Age and early civilizations - 3000 B.C.E.
This signals a shift away from stone tools and weapons, as well as, the developing of trade routes, and ideographic and syllabic writing.
Iron Age - 1300 B.C.E
This is characterized by a shift in tools and weapons, as well as, the introduction of alphabetic characters and the development of written language.
Sargon of Akkad
Emperor famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 23rd and 22nd centuries BCE. His vast empire is known to have extended from Elam to the Mediterranean Sea, including Mesopotamia, parts of modern-day Iran and Syria, and possibly parts of Anatolia and the Arabian peninsula.
Last great king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. He established the first systematically organized library in the ancient Middle East, which survives in part today at Nineveh. Despite being a popular king among his subjects, he was also known by for his exceedingly cruel actions towards his enemies. Some pictures depict him putting a dog chain through the jaw of a defeated king and then making him live in a dog kennel. Many paintings of the period seem to exhibit pride in his malice and brutality.
Cradle of civilization., means, "between the rivers".
Among the earliest known works of literature. Scholars believe that it originated as a series of Sumerian legends and poems about the protagonist of the story, the king of Uruk. Various themes, plot elements, and characters in this work can also be found in the Hebrew Bible in the stories of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden (both stories involve a serpent) and the story of Noah and the Flood.
Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, authored by Kautilya.
The belief that non-human entities are spiritual beings, or at least embody some kind of life-principle.
Begun with the 6th century BCE conquest of the ancient Kingdom of Judah, destruction of the First Temple (c. 586 BC), and expulsion of the population.
Were massive structures built in the ancient Mesopotamian valley and western Iranian plateau, having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels.
"Mound of the Dead," most likely one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization
Turkish for "fork mound". Neolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BCE to 5700 BCE, it is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date.
A large body of texts originating in ancient India. The texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism
Indian Caste System
A system of social stratification and social restriction in India. Traditionally, the political power usually lay with the Kshatriyas, the economic power with the Vaishyas and Shudras, while the Brahmins, as custodians and interpreters of Dharma, enjoyed much prestige and were given many advantages by society, even though they were economically poor.
The first major Pre-Columbian civilization in Mexico. Their most familiar aspect is their artwork, particularly the aptly named Colossal Heads
It is counted among the four canonical sacred texts of Hinduism. It contains several mythological and poetical accounts of the origin of the world, hymns praising the gods, and ancient prayers for life, prosperity, etc.
During this dynasty, the use of iron was introduced to China. The dynasty also spans the period in which the written script evolved into its modern form with the use of an archaic clerical script that emerged during the late Warring States period.
The first dynasty of China (ca. 2070 - ca. 1600 BC). They were established by the legendary Yu the Great.
The southern capitol of the Napata/Meroitic Kingdom, that spanned the period c. 800 BCE - c. 350 CE. The base of a flourishing kingdom whose wealth was due to a strong iron industry, and international trade involving India and China.
great ice age
geological era that occurred between ca 2 million and 11000 years ago; as a result of climate shifts, large numbers of new species evolved during this period, aka the pleistocene epoch; period of occurring widespread glacier coallations; resulted in a land bridge
period of the stone age associated with the evolution of humans; predates the neolithic period; aka the old stone age; they ewre concerned with food supply; used stone as well as bone tools; nomadic hunters and gatherers
a region between the tigris and euphrates rivers that developed the first urban societies. in the bronze age this area included sumer & the akkadian, babylonian, and assyrian empires; in the iron age, it was ruled by the neo-assyrian and neo-babylonian empires; aka the land between the rivers; created the invention of the wheel; contains the fertile crescent
the people who dominated southern mesopotamia through the end of the third milennium bce; responsible for the creation of many fundamental elements of mesopotamian culture such as irrigation technology, cuneiform, and religious conceptions - taken over by their semitic successors; got off to a strong start
sargon of akkad
(2370-2315 bce); the creator of the empire in mesopotamia; first to use imperialism; sargon the great; conquered babylonians; conquered sumerian city-states
first king of babylon; amorite ruler of babylon (r. 1792-1750 bce); conquered many city-states in southern and northern mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases; designed a legal code that gave punishment based on crime and social status, relied on the principal of lex talionis
formed by hammurabi into an empire; babylon was the largest and most important city in mesopotamia; it was the capital; destroyed by sargon of akkad; strong and prosperous
seventh century bce assyrian ruler; assembled a large collection of writings drawn from the ancient literary, religion, and scientific traditions of mesopotamia; last great neo-assyrian ruler; 25k political texts
people from central anatolia who established an empire in anatolia and syria in the late bronze age; with wealth from trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces, the hittites vied with new kingdom egypt for control of syria-palestine before falling to unidentified attackers ca. 1200 bce; first two wheeled chariots and iron
their empire covered much of what is now mesopotamia, syria, palestine, egypt, and anatolia; its height was during the seventh and eigth centuries bce; resource: the tigris river; controlled fertile crescent at one point
neo-babylonian king in the 6th century bce; created hanging gardens, one of the 7 wonders of the world; captured jerusalem in 587 bce; assyrian homeland and anatolia fell to neo babylonian kingdom; rebuilt babylonia
defeated by cyrus II in 546 bce; invented coins in early 6th century; spoke anatolian language; coin system changed the world; big important contribution - stimulated trade & wealth
founded carthage in ca. 800 bce; located on eastern mediterranean coast; invented the alphabet which used sounds rather than symbols like cuneiform; semetic-speaking canaanites living on the coast of modern lebanon and syria; engaged in widespread commerce; organized in city-states
the ethnic group claiming descent from abraham and isaac; early group of people who lived in lands between mesopotamia and egypt. they developed the religion judaism; hebrew bible was books containing materials concerning origins, experiences, beliefs & practice of hebrews; tanakh were the books of the bible that made up the hebrew canon; torah - first 5 books of jewish scripture
indian river valley civilization
known as the harappa civilization because its capital was at harappa; mohenjo-daro was a main city; river flooding twice a year; mid 3rd millen. bce; most successful 2600-1900 bce
largest of the cities of the indus valley civilization; centrally located in the extensive flood plain of the indus river; large scale construction, orderly grid of streets and standardizing of building materials are evidence of central planning; very planned out city; aka "mound of the dead"
a mountain pass that connected pakistan and afghanistan; goes between the black and caspian seas and the plateau of iran; used for traveling, transporting goods, and people, and trading
immigrants who arrived at the ganges river valley by the year 1000 bce from persia or central asia; settled with the harrappans in india; vedas (collection of hymns, songs, prayers, and rituals honoring the gods of the aryans) of this time suggested the beginning of the caste system; spoke indo aryan languages
a period in the history of india; it was a period of transition from nomadic pastoralism to settled village communities, with cattle the major form of wealth; rig veda contains most history from the vedic age
a preserved neolithic site that was found in south anatolia; aka "fork mound"; lasted from 7500 bce to 5700 bce; jericho and catal huyuk have all our civilization info about those areas
on the bank of the nile; capital of a flourishing kingdom in the south of nubia from the 4th century bce to the 4th century ce; in this period nubian culture shows more independence from egypt and the influence of sub-saharan africa; kush- an egyptian name for nubia deeply influenced and controlled by gypt; had many pyramids; thrived on iron distruty and trade
axum - christian state in africa that developed its own branch of christianity aka coptic christianity, because it was cut off from other christians due to a larger muslim presence in africa
-ethiopia - east african highland nation lying east of the nile river
-naval trading power that ruled north west africa for more than 1000 years
moved south through africa spreading language & culture from 500 bce to 1000 ad; spread iron; swahili was their language; collective name for a large group of subsaharan african languages & of the people speaking them
eastern africa south of egypt; rivals of the ancient egyptians & known for flourishing between 400s bce and 400s ce; darker skin and speak their own language; on the nile with many cataracts; served trade between africa and the mediterranean; lots of gold
group of ethnically similar peoples spread across the pacific ocean on various islands; geography was different but people were the same
a religion originating in ancient iran with the prophet zoroaster; centered on a single benevolent deity - ahuramazda - who fought demons before prevailing and restoring a pristine world; emphasized truth telling, purity, and reverence from nature; good conduct = rewarded in afterlife; founded in persia in the 6th century; one of the first monotheistic religions
chinese river valley civilization
civilization on the yellow river; yellow river helped by irrigating, helped survival and farming; attracted ethnic groups; big populous civilization
people who move from one place to another without making permanent settlement; followed plant and animal herd seasons; hunted and gathered; migrators and travelers; religion was like farmers (sky god); caused trouble for chinese
later part of neolithic era aka bronze age because advances in metalurgy & tools; follows the paleolithic period; associated with agriculture advances; last part of stone age; right after the development of metallurgy; increasing domestication of animals and crops; crafts like pottery and weaving
hunting & gathering
performed by migrators to find food & shelter; explains nomadic existence & the spread of humanity throughout the earth in prehistoric times; hunting for wild animals (men) gathering berries (women); developed by homoerectus
slash & burn agriculture
ancient form of agriculture; cutting down of forest/woodlands then burning them to create fields for an agriculture or pastures for livestock; practice has been abandoned; ashes fertilized land for crops
the tigris & euphrates rivers gave life to the first known agricultural villages in this area about 10000 years ago & the first known cities c.5000 years ago; fertile area with a wide range of domesticable animals; extended to mediterranean sea and had some connection to the nile
big factor in agriculture & in civilizations being built; long process of chaning a plant or animal to be used for humans; otherwise known as taming or controlling a plant/animal to obey (usually animals)
the gilgamesh epic
an epic poem from mesopotamia & among the earliest known works of literary writing; themes & characters can be found in the bible; work of literature that sent a message
the egyptian book of the dead
ancient egyptian funerary texts known as "the book of coming [or going] forth by day"; name was created by germans; used for reading ceremonials and burials; possibly associated with pyramids
a system of writing in which wedge-shaped symbols represented words or syllables; it originates in mesopotamia & was used initially for sumerian & akkadian but later adapted to rep. other languages; literacy was confined to a small group of administrators & scribes; used from 3000s bce to 100s bce; derived from "cunevs" which means wedge
a temple tower of ancient mesopotamia, constructed of square or rectangular terraces of diminishing size, usually with a shrine made of blue enamel bricks onthe top; massive pyramidal steptower made of mudbricks; associated with religious complexes; a terracestep pyramid of successfully repeating stories/levels
a large, triangular stone monument used in egypt & nubia as the king's burial place; largest pyramids, from the old kingdom, made with stone tools & hard labor, reflected egyptian belief that proper burial of ruler = prosperity of land; for religious worship
a small, independent state consisting of an urban center & the surrounding agricultural territory; a characteristic political form in early mesopotamia, archaic & classical greece, phoenicia & early italy; associated with the greek polis; greek city states still exist (singapore, vatican city)
the worship of many gods; usually assembles into a poly pantheon of gods & goddesses along with their own mythologies & rituals (greek, roman); died down, faded away (not too common in modern times)
belief in a single deity/divine entity; israelite worship of yahweh developed into an exclusive belief in one god, and this concept passed into christianity & islam; most popular religious are this
not nomadic; a greek word meaning "dispersal" used to describe the communities of a given ethnic group living outside their homeland; ex: jews spread from israel to west asia & mediterranean lands in antiquity & today can be found throughout the world; initiated when nebuchadnezzar destroyed the first temple & deported part of their population
a reed that grows along the banks of the nile river in egypt; from it was produced a coarse, paperlike writing medium used by the egyptians & many other peoples in the ancient mediterranean & middle east; egyptian paper where they drew symbols; contributed to revolutionary advancements
designating or pertaining to a pictographic script, particularly that of the ancient egyptians, in which many of the symbols are conventialized, recognizable pictures of the things represented; used papyrus
an indo-european, indic language in use since c. 1200 bce as the religious & classical literacy language of india; major written indian language; displayed in the vedas; form of written communication
a wide variety of beliefs & ritual practices that developed in the indian subcontinent since antiquity. it has rots in ancient vedic, buddhist, and south indian religious concepts and practices; characterized by a belief in after life and a supreme being who takes many forms; polytheistic and has a focus on karma
discusses dharma, liberation, war, & yoga; the most important work of indian sacred literature, a diologue between the great warrior arjuna and the god krishna on duty & the fate of the spirit; a book in popular hinduism that responded to buddhism & made reaching moksha easier; hindu scripture taught by krishna, "a manifestation of the god himself"
the longest single poem in the world, about a war fought between 2 branches of the same family; one of india's greatest epics written between 1000 and 700 bce; includes the bhagavad-gita; epic of ancient india; teaches of karma
epic of hinduism in sanskrit; portrays the duties of relationships and how they work properly; one of the main teachings through the literature of hinduism; one of the two great epics of india & nepal
characterized inter-state relations in ancient india; ancient indian treatise on statecraft and how to run a govenrment; on statecraft, economic policy, military strategy; emperor of the mauryan empire ;argues for autocracy managing efficient/solid economy
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