56 terms

Endocrine System

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Which of these glands secretes releasing hormones?
Hypothalamus
Which of these hormones are responsible for the "fight or flight" response to danger?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) triggers the release of _____ in response to stress.
Glucocorticoids

ATCH stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glcocorticoids
The main male hormones
Androgens
What hormone promotes water retention by the kidneys
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Which hormone opposes the action of parathyroid hormone
Calcitonin

Parathyroid increase blood pressure

Calcitonin decreased blood pressure
What hormone stimulates hormone production by the ovaries and testes
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Which hormone stimulates milk production
Prolactin
Homeostasis Pathway
Pathway -
A. Negative Feedback
Stimulus -
B. Endocrine Cell
C. Hormone
D. Blood Vessel
Target Cell -
Response
Receptors for non steroid hormones are located in
Association with a cell's plasma membrane

** non steroid hormones do not cross a cell's plasma membrane
Non steroid hormones
Epinephrine and Oxytocin
How do non steroid hormones differ from steroid hormones
Non steroid hormones act via signal transduction pathways;
Steroid hormones do not act via signal transduction pathways

** Non steroids do NOT enter the cell, they act via signal transduction pathways
Which of these extracellular signal molecules could diffuse through a plasma membrane and bind to an intracellular receptor
Estrogen - Steroid hormone
The primary reason steroid hormones usually act slowly is that
They turn genes on and off and it takes time for gene products to build up or become depleted
Steroid hormone receptor complexes act in
The nucleus
Which of the following statements about the functions of hormones is MOST correct
Hormones influence protein synthesis
Hormones can affect the activities of the plasma membrane
Hormones affect energy utilization
Hormones may be involved in secretory activity
If the level of calcium in the blood falls below the homeostatic level...
Parathormone levels in the body would increase

**Parathormone = parathyroid hormone
Adrenal Gland
Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine to stress; they speed up the heart and increase blood glucose levels
You ate cake - what happens in your body
Glucose increases
Insulin increases
Glucagon deceases
How are hormones related to the interaction of the nervous system and muscular system
The nervous system can control muscle movement by controlling the release of hormones
When considering receptors for hormone molecules, we can say that, in general
Receptors for lipid-soluble hormones are inside the cell, whereas receptors for lipid-insoluble hormones are on or in the cell membrane
When a hormone binds to a receptor, the resulting molecule is called a
Hormone-receptor complex
What type of hormone is most likely to react with and activate a portion of a DNA molecule
Steroid

** Steroids are ipids and thus can cross the membranes to enter the cell
If a gene is activated by a hormone, what is the most likely chain of events
A strand of mRNA is transcribed in the nucleus. It leaves the nucleus for the cytoplasm. The message is translated into a new protein
What would be the best way to describe or define the concept of the second messenger
When the binding of the hormone to a membrane receptor (the "first messenger") activates another molecule within the cell (often cyclic AMP), that activated molecule is the second messenger
Which of the following hormones has intracellular receptors
Cortisol

** Cortisol is a lipid soluble hormone. Thyroid hormones are also lipid soluble.
What is the mechanism of action of action lipid soluble hormones
Activation of genes, which increases protein synthesis in the cell
After a lipid soluble hormone is bound to its intracellular receptor, what does the hormone complex do
Acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene
What hormone's receptor is always bound to DNA, even when the receptor is empty
Thyroid hormone
What keeps intarcellular receptors from binding to DNA before a hormone binds to the receptor
Chaperone proteins (chaperonins)

* Each receptor has two binding sites. The chaperone protein blocks the DNA binding site until a hormone binds at the hormone binding site
What type of hormones bind to receptors located on the cell membranes
Water-soluble hormones, such as insulin and epinephrine

** Cannot diffuse through the plasma membrane
What intracellular substance degrades cAMP, thus inactivating the response to a hormone
Phosphodiesterase
Growth factor hormones, such as insulin, bind to what type of receptor
Tyrosine kinase receptors
Which is the correct order of events for hormones activating Gs proteins
Activation of G protein, binding of GTP, activation of adenylate cyclase, conversion of ATP to cAMP
Which second messenger systems can phosphorylate ion channels and proteins
IP3
Which of the following adrenergic receptors increase cAMP levels
B receptors
Pancreas
Thyroid Gland
Thymus
Adrenal Gland
Pituitary
Testis
Ovaries
Label the glands
A. Pituitary
B. Thyroid Gland
C. Thymus
D. Adrenal Gland
E. Pancreas
F. Ovaries
G. Testes
What is occurring in relation to the blood glucose levels
1. Pancreas stops secretion of insulin - D
2. Glucagon secretion is inhibited - A
3. Peak Glucose levels in plasma - B
4. Adipose tissues use glucose to produce fat storage - C
ACTH
Adrenal Cortex
Gastrin
Stomach
Thyrotropin
Thyroid
Prolactin
Breasts
LH
Ovaries, Testis
ADH
Kidney
GnRH
Anterior Pituitary
Growth Hormone
Muscles and Bones
Type 2
Diabetes - target cells do not respond normally to insulin
Type 1
Diabetes - no insulin is produced
Type 1 and Type 2
Diabetes - glucose levels remain higher than normal