Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe
Stars, Life Cycle of Star, Types of Stars, Galaxies, Formation of the Universe
Terms in this set (59)
huge, hot, bright balls of gas that are trillions of kilometers away from Earth
the band of color produced when white light passes through a prism
a spectrum that shows all the colors (hot solid object)
astronomers use this to break a star's light into a spectrum; gives information about the composition and temperature
lines that are made when certain wavelength of light, or colors, are given off by hot gases
Why is a star's spectrum made of dark emission lines?
Because the atmosphere absorbs certain colors of light in the spectrum, which causes black lines to appear
produced when light from a gas passes through cooler gas
How are stars classified?
by how hot they are
brightest stars in the sky (negative numbers represent brighter stars)
dimmest stars (positive numbers represent dimmer stars)
brightness of a star as seen from the earth
What is the sun's apparent magnitude?
-26.8 (brightest object in the sky)
the brightness that a star would have at a distance of 32.6 light years from Earth
What is the sun's absolute magnitude?
Use __________ to measure the distance from Earth to the stars
What do you use to find the actual distance to stars that are close to Earth?
parallax and simple trigonometry
a star's apparent shift in position
apparent motion of the sun and stars in our sky is due to
What causes the seasons?
Earth's tilt and revolution
All stars you see appear to rotate around this
Polaris (North Star)
because of Earth's rotation
all of the stars in the sky appear to make one complete circle around Polaris every 24 hours
first stage is a ball of gas and dust, gravity pulls the gas and dust together into a sphere
nebula condenses into this
Once nuclear fusion occurs
it moves to the second stage
stars that reach the protostar stage but never have nuclear fusion
stars are classified by
their size, mass, brightness, color, temperature, spectrum, and age
second and longest stage of life cycle; our sun is this
third stage of life cycle
star that expands and cools once it uses up all its hydrogen, causes center to shrink
(fourth stage for average to small stars), small hot star that is the leftover center of a red giant
red dwarf stars
black dwarf stars
gigantic explosion in which a massive star collapses (massive blue stars)
a star that has collapsed under gravity to the point at which all of its particles are neutrons
spinning neutron star, sends out radio signals
an object so massive and dense that even light cannot escape its gravity, give off x rays
H-R Diagram (Hertzsprung-Rusell diagram)
graph that shows the relationship between a star's surface temperature and absolute magnitude
Temperature is given along the bottom and absolute magnitude (brightness) is given along the left-hand side. Hot (blue) stars are located on the left-cool (red) stars are on the right. Bright stars are on top and dim stars are on bottom.
diagonal pattern where most stars lie
average stars, such as the sun, become
red giants and then white dwarfs
large group of stars, dust, and gas
has a bulge at the center and spiral arms made up of gas, dust, and new stars (Milky Way, Andromeda)
1/3 of all galaxies are simply massive blobs of stars, have very bright centers and very little dust/gas, mostly old stars.
large clouds of gas and dust. some glow, others absorb light and hide stars, others reflect starlight; regions in which new stars form; usually spiral galaxies contain
group of stars that looks like a ball, may be up to one million stars; located in a spherical halo that surrounds spiral galaxies and are common near elliptical galaxies
groups of closely groupes stars that are usually located along the spiral disk of a galaxy, few hundred to a few thousand stars
the most distant objects. star-like sources of light that are extremely far away; most powerful energy sources in the universe; may be caused by massive black holes in the cores of some galaxies
study of the orgin, structure, and future of the universe
as universe expands,
the galaxies move farther apart
big bang theory
universe began with a tremendous explosion 13.7 billion years ago. all of the contents of the universe were compressed under extreme pressure, temperature, and density in a very tiny spot. universe rapidly expanded and matter began to come together and form galaxies.
evidence for the big bang theory
cosmic background radiation, red shift
cosmic background radiation
radiation coming from all directions in space, left over from the big bang
galaxies are moving away from each other (Edwin Hubble)
structure of the universe
structure that is loosely repeated over and over again. every object in the universe is part of a larger system
ways to calculate the age of the universe
measuring the distance from Earth to various galaxies; calculate the old, nearby stars, because the universe must be at least as old as the oldest stars it contains
as the galaxies move father apart
they get older and stop forming stars
if there is enough matter, gravity could eventually stop the expansion of the universe, collapse in on itself and have another Big Bang
if not enough matter, stars will age and die and the universe will expand forever
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