Reticular Formation

what are the 4 main components of the brainstem?
a) cranial nerve nuclei
b) reticular formation and other related structures
c) long tracts (ALS, DCML, corticospinal etc)
d) cerebellar circuitry
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Terms in this set (77)
____ column had magnocellular & gigantocellular neurons and it also sends various efferent fibers to the motor cranial nuclei & anterior horn motor nuclei of SC via __ & __ tracts
a) lateral parvocellular; reticulospinal; spinoreticular
b) paramedian magnocellular (medial); reticulobulbar; reticulospinal
c) paramedian magnocellular (medial); reticulocortical; corticospinal
d) lateral parvocellular
which one is a series of raphe nuclei a) lateral parvocellular b) paramedian magnocellular (medial) c) median RF d) inferior parvocellularmedian RFwhich column sends long axons to brain & SC as well as is a major part of the serotonergic projections a) lateral parvocellular b) paramedian magnocellular (medial) c) median d) inferior parvocellularmedian RFreticular nuclei & their NT's: regulates neural activity throughout the (CNS/PNS). Neurons in each nucleus produce different NT's.CNSmajor locations of reticular nuclei are as follows: a) VTA (ventral tegmental area) b) PPN (pedunculopontine nucleus) c) raphe nuclei d) locus ceruleus & medial reticular area e) all of the aboveall of the aboveVTA produces which NT? a) serotonin b) NE c) dopamine d) Achdopaminewhat are the 2 production areas located in ventral midbrain? a) reticular formation; limbic system b) substantia nigra; ventral tegmental c) limbic system; ventral tegmental d) ventral tegmental, midbrainb) substantia nigra; ventral tegmentalthe ventral tegmental area is part of the ___ ___ & is involved in ____ ___ & ____reticular formation; decision making; motivationSubstantia nigra is part of ____ _____ ganglia circuit involved in _____Basal Ganglia MovementActivation of VTA affects the ventral striatum producing feelings of _____ & ______ A. Sad and sorrow B. Gitty and Happy C. Pleasure and RewardC. Pleasure and Reward________ is habit forming bc it inhibits inhibitory inputs to the VTA increasing _______ release A. Morphine, Dopamine B. Morphine, Seratonin C. Dopamine, GlutamateA. Morphine, DopaminePPN is located in the _____ _____ and produces ______ and functions as a _______________ in the CNS/PNS?Caudal Midbrain ACh Neuromodulator CNSAscending/descending axons from the PPN project to the inferior part of the frontal cerebral cortex and the intralaminar nuclei of the thalamusAscendingPPN influences movement via the following connections: A. Globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus B. Limbic system C. Reticular areas that give rise to the reticulospinal tracts. D. All of aboveD. All of aboveCells that produce ______ are in midline of ________ in the raphe nuclei A. Dopamin, SC B. Serotonin, Brainstem C. Glutamate, HypothalamusB. Serotonin, BrainstemRaphe Nuclei project thought the _______ (thalamus, midbrain tectum, cerebral cortex, striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, cerebellum) and ______ ______Cerebrum Spinal CordSerotonin has a profound effect on ______ and is part of fast acting pathway for descending _____ _______. Also has some influence on ___________ systemMood Pain Inhibition Cardiovascular______ _____ & ______ _____ ______ are the sources of most __________ in the CNS. Most active when person is ______ and inactive during _____Locus Coeruleus Medial Reticular Zone Norepinephrine Attentive SleepAscending/Descending axons help direct attention while ascending/descending neuros to the SC inhibit pain A. Ascending, Descending B. Descending, AscendingA. Ascending, Descending______ ______ ____ produces epinephrine & norepinephrine as well as regulations _________ functionsMedial Reticular Zone Autonomic________ is the awareness of self and surroundingConsciousnessAscending Reticular Activating System governs ____ ____ and _______.Alterness Sleep AttentionARAS projects consciousness system which includes _____, ______ and ___ _______Forebrain Thalamus Cerebral CortexMajor RF Functions A. CN & locomotion pattern generators B. Respiratory control C. Higher level bladder control D. Control via chemoreceptors and baroreceptors E. Sleeping & wakefulness F. Ascending RAS G. Sensory Moduction H. All of aboveH. All of aboveRF is associated with patterns of _______. _________ movement of eyes (from midbrain & pons). _________ chewing (pons). Swallowing, coughing, & _______ (medulla)Movement Conjugate Rhythmic SneezingLocomotor Pattern Generators located in the spinal cord gray/white matter connects to the _______.Gray LimbsLocomotor Pattern Generators have _________ oscillating currents that deliver ______ signals to ________ and _______ muscle groupsElectrically Rhythmical Flexor and Extensor_____ _______ _______ sends fibers through tract in tegmentum to modulatePedunculo Pontine NucleusDorsal and ventral respiratory nuclei located in the ________. Stimulation by the _______ can cause hypo/hyperventilation.Medulla Amygdala Hyperventilation______ _______ nucleus sets breath per minute A. Medial Parabrachial B. Lateral Parabrachial C. Inferior Parabrachial D. Superior ParabrachialA. Medial ParabrachialMicturition control center in the _ _ _ _PPRF (Parapontine Reticular Formation)Magnocellular neuros project from here to parasympathetic neuros in _____ - ______S2-S4Meduallary Chemosensitive Areas are located in medial/lateral RF which are sensitive to ____+ concentrations in the _ _ _ and will stimulate dorsal/ventral respiratory nucleusLateral H CSF DorsalCarotid Chemoreceptors respond to fall in _____ or rise of ______ causing reflex adjustment of blood gas levels and stimulates dorsal/ventral respiratory nucleusO2 CO2 VentralCardiovascular Control: ________ in the carotid sinus and aortic arch project to the solitary nucleus. A. Chemoreceptors B. Thermoreceptors C. BaroreceptorsC. BaroreceptorsBaroreceptors can trigger _______ & ________ reflexes to raised BPBarovagal BarosympatheticDestruction of the ______ ______ ______(serotonin) results in insomnia in humans/animalsMidbrain Raphe Nucleus AnimalsBrainstem serotonin release into the CSF = sleep inducing/reducingInducingAndrogenics/Cholinergics are active during REM sleepCholinergicsRF neurons activate cerebral cortex causing ______ from ______ as cholinergic neurons are excitatory/inhibitoryArousal Sleep Excitatory________ is control center for body rhythms linked to the RAS. It sustains waking state pattern of the brainHypothalamuSensory Modulation includes: A. Gate control theory B. Raphe Nucles (fibers descend and liberate serotonin) C. Diffuse Noxious inhibitory controls (pain in 1 area gives relief in other parts) D. Stimulus induced analgesis E. Stress induced analgesia F. All of themF. All of themSingle brainstem lesions may cause a mix of _______ & ________ signsIpsilateral ContralateralCranial nerves supply the ipsilateral/contralateral face and neck: many of the vertical tracts cross midline in the ________ to supply the contralateral bodyIpsilateral BrainstemLesions in the brainstem may also interfere with ______ functions and _______Vital ConsciousnessLateral corticospinal, DCML, and spinothalamic tracts connect the spinal cord with the ipsilateral/contralateral cerebrumContralateralLesions of the lateral corticospinal and DCML in the brainstem usually cause ________ signs bc these tracts cross the midline in the _______. Any lesion below this would cause ______ lossContralateral Medulla Ipsilateral_________ lesions anywhere in the brainstem cause contralateral loss A. DCML B. SpinothalamicB. SpinothalamicNeurons with axons in the corticobulbar tract serve as upper motor neurons to the motor neurons in the cranial nerves (6) of themV VII IX X XI XIIMixed loss example: Single lesion in the upper anteromedial medulla on LEFT side can cause paralysis of the ______ hand & foot, loss of discriminative touch and proprioceptive info on the _____ side of the body and paresis of the ______ side of the tongueRight Right LeftDisruption of vital fx secondary to brainstem damage may cause A. Heart to stop beating B. Blood pressure to fluctuate C. Breathing to cease D. All of the aboveD. All of the aboveAreas in the ______ & _____ regulate vital functions A. Midbrain & SC B. Thalamus & Hypothalaums C. Medulla & PonsC. Medulla & PonsCardinal signs of brainstem dysfunction include A. Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) B. Dysarthria (difficulty in speaking) C. Diplopia (double vision) D. Dysmetria (inability to control the distance of movements) E. All of themE. All of themStates of altered consciousness may occur with lesions to either _____ or the ______Brainstem CerebellumBrainstem damage affecting reticular formation and/or axons of the _ _ _ System interfere with consciousness A. PPN B. CSF C. ALS D. ARAD. ARADamage to cerebrum interfering with _______ & _______ activating areas or with the function of the entire cerebral cortex may also impair _______Hypothalamic Thalamic ConsciousnessComaUnarousable, no response to strong stimuli including strong pinching of the Achilles TendonStuporArousable only by strong stimuli, including strong pinching of the Achilles TendonObtundedSleeping more than awake, drowsy and confused while awakeVeg StateComplete loss of consciousness w/o alteration of vital fx. Veg state is distinguished from come by the following signs: spontaneous eye opening, regular sleep wake cycles, normal respiratory patternsMin Concious StateSeverely altered consciousness with at least 1 behavioral sign of consciousness. Signs include following simple commands, gestural or verbal yes/no responses, intelligible speech, and movements or affective behaviors that are not reflexiveSyncopeBrief loss of consciousness due to a drop in BPDeliriumReduced attentions, orientation, and perception, associated with confused ideas and agitationTumors w/i cerebellum or brainstem cause increased intracranial pressure which may cause.....HA N & V Cranial Nerve Disorders Hydrocephalus Ataxia - if the tumor is w/i the cerebellumDamage cause by a ______ tumor may be extensive bc the unyielding ____ & _____ prevent brain tissue from moving away from the pressureBenign Bone DuraIschemia in the brainstem produces abrupt onset of neurologic symptoms including.....Dizziness Visual Disorders Weakness Incoordination Somatosensory Disorders___________ artery insufficiency produces transient symptoms of brainstem region ischemia when the neck is _______ & ________Vertebrobasilar Extended RotatedPICA ischemia causes _____________ Syndrome A. Down's B. Fetal Alcohol C. WallenburgsC. Wallenburg's