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95 terms

BIO160 - Ch. 10 Blood

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The volume of erythrocytes within a given volume of whole blood, expressed as a percentage, is __________.
hematocrit
The plasma protein that contributes to the osmotic pressure of blood is __________.
albumin
The iron-containing protein found in RBCs that transports the majority of oxygen carried in the blood is __________.
hemoglobin
The anucleate cells that function to transport oxygen to the body's cells are called __________.
erthrocytes (RBCs)
A decrease in the blood's ability to transport oxygen is called __________
anemia
The red blood cell disorder caused by life at a high altitude is called __________.
polycythemia
White blood cells are also called __________.
leukocytes
The movement of WBCs to areas of inflammation in response to chemical mediators is called __________.
positive chemotaxis
An abnormal elevation of WBCs above the normal count of 11,000 cells/mm3 is called __________.
leukocytosis
The process by which WBCs are able to easily slip in and out of blood vessels is called __________.
diapedesis
The process of blood cell formation within the red marrow of bones is called __________.
hematopoiesis
The process by which bleeding is stopped is called __________.
hemostasis
A thrombus that has broken away from a vessel wall and is freely floating in the bloodstream is called an __________.
embolus
An insufficiency of circulating platelets is called __________.
thrombocytopenia
Hereditary bleeding disorders that result from lack of clotting factors are referred to as __________.
hemophilia
Substances that the body recognizes as foreign are called __________.
antigens
The rarest blood type in the United States is type __________.
AB
Blood type A carries the __________ antigen.
A
The blood type referred to as the universal donor is called type __________.
O
A person with type B blood can receive blood from blood type(s) __________.
B; O
If you carry the Rh antigen, you are referred to as Rh __________.
positive
The condition in which maternal antibodies cross the placenta and destroy the baby's RBCs is called __________.
hemolytic disease of the newborn
The condition in which fetal RBCs are destroyed faster than the infant liver can rid the body of the breakdown products of hemoglobin is called __________.
physiologic jaundice
The matrix of blood is called:
plasma
In a centrifuged blood sample, the buffy coat between the formed elements and the plasma contains:
leukocytes and platelets
Which one of the following is NOT a physical characteristic of blood:
sweet tasting
Which one of the following does NOT describe blood plasma:
it is the color of red wine
Which one of the following formed elements is the most abundant:
erythrocytes
Erythrocytes:
are anucleate
Normal whole blood contains __________ g of hemoglobin per 100 mL.
12-18
Which of the following is not a type of red blood cell disorder?
leukemia
Excessive erythrocytes result in:
polycythemia
There are an average of __________ WBCs per cubic millimeter of whole blood.
4000-11,000
Which one of the following is NOT true of WBCs:
they initiate the clotting process
Which one of the following groups consist of granulocytes:
neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
The type of leukocytes that would increase rapidly during allergy attacks and infections of parasitic worms are:
eosinophils
The most numerous white blood cells are the:
neutrophils
Which type of leukocyte contains heparin, an anticoagulant:
basophil
The type of leukocytes that become macrophages in the tissues are:
monocytes
Platelets are fragments of multinucleate cells called:
megakaryocytes
Blood cell formation in adults occurs in all of the following EXCEPT the:
shaft of the femur
The series of reactions that stop blood flow following a cut is called:
hemostasis
Which one of the following represents the proper sequence of hemostasis:
vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation
Which chemical is released to bring about vasoconstriction during the vascular spasm phase of hemostasis:
serotonin
Blood normally clots in approximately:
3 to 6 minutes
Prothrombin activator coverts prothrombin to:
thrombin
A __________ clot is formed during the process of hemostasis.
fibrin
A clot that breaks away from a vessel wall and circulates freely within the bloodstream is called a(n):
embolus
Which of the following is a blood clotting disorder:
hemophilia
Bleeding disorders often result from a lack of which one of the following vitamins:
vitamin K
The ion essential for blood clotting is:
calcium
The organ largely responsible for the synthesis of clotting factors is the:
liver
Treatment of hemophilia often involves
transfusion of plasma or injections of missing clotting factor
Severe shock occurs with blood loss of:
over 30 percent
A substance that stimulates the immune system to release antibodies:
antigen
The process whereby the binding of antibodies to antigens causes RBCs to clump is called:
agglutination
Which antigen(s) does type AB blood contain:
A and B antigens
The most common type of blood in the U.S. population is:
O
The universal recipient has blood type:
AB
ABO blood groups are based on the presence of:
A and B antigens
Which blood type(s) can a person with blood type O receive:
blood type O
The immune serum used to prevent maternal sensitization to Rh antigens is:
RhoGAM
Which of these blood types carries no antigens:
blood type O
Compatibility testing for agglutination of donor RBCs by the recipients' serum is called:
cross matching
Anemias appearing in old age result from all of the following EXCEPT:
erythrocyte mutations
Normal pH of blood is between 7.35 and 7.45.
TRUE
Blood plasma is largely water.
TRUE
The temperature of blood is slightly lower than body temperature.
FALSE
Leukocytes are more numerous in blood than erythrocytes.
FALSE
The process by which white blood cells move in and out of blood vessels is called phagocytosis.
FALSE
An abnormally low WBC count is called leukopenia.
TRUE
Basophils are the most numerous type of leukocyte.
FALSE
All formed elements arise from a common type of stem cell called a hemocytoblast.
TRUE
Normal blood volume in healthy males is 5-6 liters.
TRUE
Erythropoeitin is released to stimulate platelet production in response to inadequate amounts of oxygen in the blood.
FALSE
Hemophilia is commonly called "bleeder's disease."
TRUE
A phlebotomist collects and processes blood samples for laboratory analysis.
TRUE
Blood type A will respond to a blood transfusion of blood type B with anti-B antibodies.
TRUE
Rh-related problems occur in pregnant Rh- women carrying an Rh+ baby.
TRUE
Universal donors can receive blood groups A, B, AB, and O.
FALSE
Transports oxygen bound to hemoglobin
erythrocytes
Active phagocytes that increase rapidly during acute infection
neutrophils
Kill parasitic worms
eosinophils
Transport carbon dioxide
erythrocytes
Active phagocytes that become macrophages
monocytes
Form B and T lymphocytes
lymphocytes
Contain histamine
basophils
Increase during allergy
eosinophils
Produce antibodies
lymphocytes
Long-term "clean-up team"
monocytes
The blood type that has no antigens
Blood type O
The blood type that possesses the A antigen only
Blood type A
The blood type that can receive blood types B and O
Blood type A
The blood type that forms anti-A and anti-B antibodies
Blood type O
The blood type known as the universal recipient
Blood type AB