Upgrade to remove ads
Biology of the Brain Exam 4
Terms in this set (190)
What is language?
-A system for representing and communicating information
-Uses words combined according to grammatical rules
-Expressed in a variety of ways including gestures, writing, and speech
**estimated over 5000 languages and dialects around the world
What is speech?
An audible form of communication built on the sounds humans produce
~ how many muscles are needed for speech production?
involves coordination of over 100 muscles from those controlling lungs to those of larynx and mouth
What part of the cortex controls these muscles?
How is sound produced from the vocal tract?
Air exhaled passes through larynx.
-Within larynx are vocal folds.
-Sounds produced by vibrations in tightened vocal folds
-Sounds modified at further stages of vocal tract
What is a phoneme?
fundamental sounds of a language
What are some important differences of human language compared to language or other forms of communication other animals might use?
-complex, flexible, powerful system for communication
-creative use of words according to rules
ANIMALS: (do vocalize and use gestures)
-controversial whether their communication is "language"
-do not meet definition of human language (complex, flexible, rules)
Compare word boundaries in spoken English compared to written English. Explain why it's not trivial to understand spoken words?
Word boundaries in spoken and written English. (a) Acoustic analysis of a spoken sentence demonstrates that word boundaries cannot be determined simply from sounds. (b) An analogous situation might be reading text without spaces between words. Indeed, some patterns of letters could form more than one sentence.
(spoken language is hard. it does not reliably indicate the divisions between words)
the child learns that some combinations of sounds are far more likely than others
How does "motherese" help an infant learn language?
Adults talk to infants—speech slower, exaggerated, vowel sounds clearly articulated
-helps infants recognize word sounds very early
Is it known how the brain in infants/toddlers learn language?
brain mechanisms for language acquisition poorly understood
What did an fMRI study on 3 month old infants tell us about the brain and spoken language?
Dehaene-Lambertz: fMRI of 3-month-old infant's brain response to spoken words similar to adults'
-Horizontal sections show the planum temporale, superior temporal gyrus, and the pole of the temporal lobe that were all significantly activated when the infant listened to speech
Is there a genetic component to Language?
What type of data would indicate there is likely a genetic component?
Speech and language disorders run in families, more likely to co-occur in identical twins.
an inability to produce the coordinated muscular movements needed for speech
What did the KE family have associated with it?
a) Inheritance of language deficits in three generations of the KE family. (b) In affected KE family members, reduced gray matter was found in the caudate nucleus (upper left), cerebellum (upper right), and Broca's area in the frontal lobe (bottom).
What are mutations in Foxp2 associated with?
Study of KE family generations with verbal dyspraxia
-FOXP2 gene single mutation
-Affects development of motor cortex, cerebellum, and striatum
-Deficits in muscular control of lower face
**FOXP2 strongly expressed in brain areas involved in song learning in birds
What is Specific language impairment (SLI)? About how many 6 year olds are associated with this?
-Developmental delay in mastery of language
-is found in about 7% of all 6-year-olds in the United States.
-Not associated with hearing difficulty or more general developmental delays
which involves a difficulty learning to read despite normal intelligence and training
-appears to have a strong genetic link
Does language have a genetic component?
appears to have a strong genetic link
Partial/complete loss of language abilities following brain damage
often without the loss of cognitive faculties or the ability to move the muscles used in speech.
What is Broca's area? What is it important for? Where is it located?
-region of the brain that contains neurons involved in speech function.
-region of dominant left frontal lobe
-important in generation of articulate speech
What is Wernicke's area? What is it important for? Where is it located?
-a region of the brain concerned with the comprehension of language
-superior surface of temporal lobe between auditory cortex and angular gyrus
-lesions disrupt normal speech
Damage in motor association cortex of frontal lobe.
Speech is nonfluent, agrammatical (the inability to construct grammatically correct sentences).
-Difficulty speaking but can understand heard/read language
-Many function words (articles, pronouns, and conjunctions connecting the parts of the sentence grammatically) are left out (there are no ifs, ands, or buts). As well, verbs are frequently not conjugated.
-Paraphasic errors (Sometimes they substitute incorrect sounds or words
("purnpike" for "turnpike"))
-Pauses to search for words (anomia), repeats "overlearned" things, difficulty repeating words
-The inability to find words is called anomia
the girl who it takes a while to think of words
Posterior temporal lobe damage. Fluent speech but poor comprehension.
**Gardner's case study
-Strange mixture of clarity and gibberish
-Correct sounds, incorrect sequence
-Speech patterns mirrored in playing music, writing
**Area specialized for storing memories of sounds that make up words
the old man speaking gibberish
ability to focus on one aspect of sensory input
-Preferentially process some information and ignore the rest
-Attention has significant effects on perception.
-Corresponding changes in sensitivity of neurons at many brain locations
awareness of something
What is Resting State Brain Activity? What is its significance?
Generally, neurons become more active in cortical areas processing ongoing perceptual or motor information.
RESTING STATE ACTIVITY
-some regions are fairly quiet
-others surprisingly active
-revealed by PET and fMRI imaging of whole brain
Default mode network
-Engaging in task decreases in activity of some brain areas, whereas task-relevant areas become more active.
-Resting brain activity: fundamental and significant
-Patterns in brain activity changes consistent across human subjects
-Brain areas active in resting state
**Medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, posterior parietal cortex, hippocampus, lateral temporal (together, the default mode network. brain defaults to activity in this group of interconnected areas when not engaged in a task)
Functions of Default Mode Network
-INTERNAL MENTATION HYPOTHESIS
Broadly monitoring the environment
internal mentation hypothesis
Supports thinking and remembering, like daydreaming
What is Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder? Who has it?
inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness
-Estimates are that 5-10% of all school-age children worldwide have ADHD, and the disorder interferes with their schoolwork and interactions with classmates.
-Because the stimulus attracts our attention without any cognitive input.
-Like animal detecting predator
-attention is deliberately directed by the brain to some object or place to serve a behavioral goal.
What part of the eye is considered part of the brain?
From the retina, information is relayed to what brain region first?
Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)
-First synaptic relay in the primary visual pathway
-Visual information ascends to cortex interpreted and remembered
What type of energy is light?
electromagnetic energy that is emitted in the form of waves
How do the wavelength and frequency of light relate to the amount of energy?
Energy is proportional to frequency.
-Gamma radiation and cool colors—high energy (low wavelength)
-Radio waves and hot colors—low energy (higher wavelength)
What has more energy? Blue or red light?
-blue light: higher energy
-red light: lower energy
1.) bouncing of light rays off a surface
2.) transfer of light energy to a particle or surface
3.) bending of light rays from one medium to another
opening where light enters the eye
white of the eye
gives color to eyes
glassy transparent external surface of the eye
bundle of axons from the retina
What is an ophthalmoscope for?
allows doctor to see inside the fundus of the eye and other structures (shows the appearance of the retina)
where's the temporal retina?
side of the eye nearer the ear
where's the nasal retina?
side of the eye nearer the nose
what do the zonule fibers do?
ring of fibrous strands connecting the ciliary body with the crystalline lens of the eye. suspense ligaments of the lens
Does the cornea have blood vessels? How is it nourished?
the cornea lacks blood vessels and is nourished by the fluid behind it, the aqueous humor
what keeps the eye ball spherical?
the more viscous, jelly-like vitreous humor lies between the lens and the retina; it serves to keep the eyeball spherical
purpose of the cornea?
eye collects light, focuses on retina, and forms image (refraction of light by the cornea to focus light on the retina at the back of the eye)
what is the process of accommodation?
additional focusing power is provided by changing the shape of the lens, a process known as accommodation
-(a) To focus the eye on a distant point, relatively little refraction is required. The ciliary muscle relaxes, stretch-ing the zonule fibers and flattening the lens.
-(b) Near objects require greater refraction provided by a more spherical lens. This is achieved by contracting the ciliary muscle so there is less tension in the zonule fibers.
pupillary light reflex
-Connections between retina and brain stem neurons that control muscles around pupil
-Continuously adjusting to different ambient light levels
-Pupil similar to the aperture of a camera
What happen if you shine bright light directly into one eye?
shining a light into only one eye causes the constriction of the pupils of both eyes
What parts of the CNS controls the pupil size?
brain stem neurons that connect to the retina
function of pupil
continuously adjust to different ambient light levels
what cells detect light?
Describe the anatomy of the retina? What cells make up the retina? What is the pathway Light and the optic nerve?
The photoreceptors respond to light, and they influence the membrane potential of the bipolar cells connected to them. The ganglion cells fire action potentials in response to light, and these impulses propagate along the optic nerve to the rest of the brain.
Receive input from photoreceptors and project to other photoreceptors and bipolar cells
Receive input from bipolar cells and project to ganglion cells, bipolar cells, and other amacrine cells
why is the retina described as inside out?
Seemingly inside-out layers
-Light passes through ganglion cells and bipolar cells before reaching photoreceptors.
Why does light reflect off of the back of some nocturnal animal's retinas, but it does not reflect off of the back of retinas of humans?
Many nocturnal animals, such as cats and raccoons, have a reflective layer beneath the photoreceptors, called the tapetum lucidum, which bounces light back at the photoreceptors if it passes through the retina. The animal is thus more sensitive to low light levels at the expense of reduced acuity.
In the retina, what converts electromagnetic radiation to neural signals?
2 types of photoreceptors
-rods: long, cylindrical outer segment with many disks
-cones: shorter, tapering outer segment with fewer disks
rods or cones more abundant?
about 5 million cones and 92 million rods in each human retina
rods or cones detect color?
cones detect color
rods or cones serve to see at night?
Rods contain more disks and make vision possible in low light
rods or cones support vision during daylight?
rods or cones primarily located in the fovea?
all cones (no rods)
-area of highest visual acuity
rods or cones primarily in the peripheral retina?
higher ratio of rods to cones.
-higher ratio of photoreceptors to ganglion cells (more sensitive to low light)
What is it about the fovea that allows for higher visual acuity?
Cross section of fovea: pit in retina where outer layers are pushed aside
-Maximizes visual acuity
do photoreceptors depolarize in the light or dark?
rod outer segments are depolarized in the dark because of steady influx of Na+. Photoreceptors hyper polarize in response to light
sensitivity to small amounts of lights
-Light-activated biochemical cascade in a photoreceptor
-The consequence of this biochemical cascade is signal amplification—sensitivity to small amounts of light.
What is Dark Current?
Rod outer segments are depolarized in the dark because of steady influx of Na+.
Describe what happens to the G protein pathway in the light and in the dark?
1. Light activates (bleaches) rhodopsin.
2. Transducin, the G-protein, is stimulated.
3. Phosphodiesterase (PDE), the effector enzyme, is activated.
4. PDE activity reduces the cGMP level.
5. Na + channels close, and the cell membrane hyperpolarizes.
What allows for color vision? Do we have a photoreceptor for every color?
Contributions of blue, green, and red cones to retinal signal
what is the protein called that sense the light?
How many "opsins" are there in the human retina? What colors of light do these opsins detect? What theory of color vision is accepted?
3: Red (long wavelength), green (medium wavelength), blue (short wavelength)
-Young—Helmholtz trichromacy theory of color vision
perception of "white"
Mixing of red, green, and blue light causes equal activation of the three types of cones.
most common mood disorder, characterized by:
-Loss of interest, energy, and appetite
-Difficulty in concentration
depression that alternates with normal emotional states
types of depression
-major depressive disorder
whats the difference between unipolar depression and bipolar depression?
In addition to going through low moods or depression, individuals with bipolar disorder also have high moods known as mania during which they may experience increased energy, feelings of euphoria, insomnia or impulsive behaviors like shopping sprees or promiscuous sex
-unipolar do not experience the "highs" of bipolar
when do people get depression?
Almost everyone who becomes depressed, experiences a significant stressful event, But most people who experience such events do not become depressed
What areas of the brain become more or less active in depressed patients?
-prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, hippocampus
What is the relationship between the duration of untreated depression and hippocampus size?
the hippocampus shrinks over time when depression is left untreated
what brain abnormalities occur in depressed patients
increased blood flow to the frontal cortex and amygdala. decreased blood flow to areas involving attention and language
What parts of the brain experience brain volume loss in depressed patients? What is believed to at least in part explain this brain volume loss?
**Decreased cortical thickness, reduced neuron size
What is the HPA axis?
the HPA axis controls the synthesis and release of the corticosteroids
Do cortisol levels change through the day in people?
The release of cortisol varies through out the day, with maximal secretion in the early morning hours to effectively prepare the brain and body for the rigors of the day.
How does the hippocampus contribute to HPA axis regulation? How does the amygdala contribute to its regulation? Endocrine change during depression
The input to the hypothalamus from the cortex includes inhibitory signals from the hippocampus and activating signals from the amygdala. In other words, a healthy hippocampus turns down the HPA axis, while an active amygdala turns it up. This is important in understanding the endocrine role in depression and anxiety.
Do depressed exhibit more or less dexamethasone suppression?
People with depression have higher levels of circulating stress hormones (cortisol) and exhibit dexamethasone non-suppression. Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid
Dexamethasone suppression test
-Patients are given dexamethasone at 11 P.M. and cortisol levels are drawn the next morning. Dexamethasone binds to the glucocorticoid receptors, which in turn inhibits the secretion of ACTH and subsequently cortisol. Healthy subjects will suppress the release of cortisol. Depressed patients will fail to suppress the cortisol and show a bump in their cortisol level the next morning.
suggests depression is caused by reduced synaptic activity of norepinephrine and serotonin
What does monoamine oxidase do? What happens when you inhibit its function? How does this effect depression?
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme that inactivates monoamines.
-Treatment with monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors raises the level of monoamines at the synapse reduces the symptoms of depression
-Reserpine, a drug which reduces monoamines in the brain, can cause depression.
Problems with the serotonin deficiency theory of depression?
-Serontonin levels change quickly after administration of SSRI, but there is a delay of weeks before a reduction of depression symptoms
-Not everyone is cured, or even helped
-SSRIs increase risk of suicide in children and adolescents
What classes of Drugs or treatment modalities are used to treat depression?
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressants that block the reuptake of serotonin at synapses.
How does Prozac work? Are there side effects?
Prozac enhances serotonin's effects by preventing it from being absorbed. yes there are symptoms
What are the 4 classes of antidepressants discussed in class?
1.) monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
2.) Tricyclics and heterocyclics
3.) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
ECT and what is it used for?
Electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT)- induction of a seizure
TMS and what is it used for?
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
-a noninvasive method to excite the elementary unit of the nervous system; neurons in the brain: weak electric currents are induced in the tissue by rapidly changing magnetic fields (electromagnetic induction). This way, brain activity can be triggered with minimal discomfort, and the functionality of the circuitry and connectivity of the brain can be studied.
characterized by periods of depression alternation with expansive mood, or mania
a milder form of bipolar disorder- patients cycle between dysthymia (mild depression) and hypomania (increased energy)
hyperactive, little sleep, grandiose plans, speech rapid
-flight of ideas- attempting to share so many exciting ideas
less severe than manic episode- does not cause marked impairment in social/occupational functioning
treatment for bipolar disorder
LITHIUM is a mood-stabilizing drug
caused by inappropriate expression of fear. most common of psychiatric disorders
recurrent attacks of intense fearfulness
generalized panic disorder
persistent, excessive anxiety, and worry
post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
unpleasant memories repeatedly plague the victim, memory changes (i.e amnesia), flashbacks
intense irrational fears centered on an object, activity, or situation that a person avoids
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
marked by recurring, repetitive acts
2 drugs used to treat anxiety
Benzodiazepines are anxiolytic drugs used to treat anxiety.
They bind to GABA receptors and enhance GABA's inhibitory actions.
What are some good and bad things about Benzodiazepines?
-suppress motor/cognitive abilities
What are some good and bad things about SSRIs?
-do not suppress motor/cognitive abilities
-slow to alleviate symptoms (3-6 weeks)
what animal model is used to study PTSD?
Fear conditioning: learning in which fear is associated with a neutral stimulus
What is the relationship between PFC activity and amygdala activity that is associated with PTSD?
The patients show increased activity in the amygdala (B) and decreased activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). (have an inverse correlation for the traumatized patients)
What is the relationship between hippocampal volume and susceptibility of getting PTSD?
PTSD victims have decreased volume in the right hippocampus
Schizophrenia vs psychosis
PSYCHOSIS: broad term (e.g. hallucinations, delusions)
SCHIZOPHRENIA: a type of psychosis
-psychosis and schizophrenia are heterogeneous
-disturbed thought, emotion, behavior
delusions of grandeur (that you really are Mother Teresa or Napoleon) or delusions of persecution (the cyclist who believes her competitors were sabotaging her by putting pebbles in the road)
hearing voices, seeing people who have died, hear a dead uncle talking to you
not answering direct questions, going off on tangents, speaking in unintelligible words and sentences
behavioral problems example
pacing excitably, catatonic immobility, keeping body parts in the same position when they are moved by someone else, inappropriate dress (wearing coats in summer), ignoring personal hygiene
flat speech, little change in facial expression, apathy towards day to day activities, delayed and tried response in conversation, loss of enjoyment in pleasurable activities (eating, sex, socializing)
How long do you need to meet criteria for diagnoses of of schizophrenia?
at least 6 months
Subtypes of schizophrenia
delusions of grandeur or persecution, hallucinations (especially auditory), higher level of functioning between episodes, may have stronger familial link than other types
-disorganized speech and/or behavior
-chronic and lacking in remissions
-alternating immobility and excited agitation
-unusual motor responses
-odd facial or body mannerisms (often mimicking others)
-person has had at least one schizophrenic episode but no longer shows major symptoms
-still shows "leftover" symptoms (social withdrawal, bizarre thoughts, inactivity, flat affect
symptoms of several types that taken together do not neatly fall into one specific category
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
active manifestations of abnormal behavior
-DELUSIONS (basic feature of madness): gross misinterpretations of reality
-HALLUCINATIONS (auditory and/or visual): experience of sensory events without environmental input
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia
absence of normal behavior
-AVOLITION or APATHY: lack of initiation and persistence
-ALOGIA: relative absence of speech
-ANHEDONIA: lack of pleasure, or indifference
-AFFECTIVE FLATTENING: little expressed emotion
Disorganized symptoms of schizophrenia
include severe and excess disruptions.
1.) NATURE OF DISORGANIZED SPEECH:
-cognitive slippage: illogical and incoherent speech
-tangentiality: going off on a tangent
-loose associations: conversation in unrelated directions
2.) NATURE OF DISORGANIZED AFFECT: inappropriate emotional behavior
3.) NATURE OF DISORGANIZED BEHAVIOR: (includes a variety of unusual behaviors)
-Catatonia: wild agitation, waxy flexibility, immobility
What's the typical clinical course of schizophrenia?
The typical clinical course of schizophrenia includes a relatively normal childhood interrupted in late adolescence or early adulthood by a dramatic deterioration from which few remit.
There is some evidence that schizophrenia is an emerging illness. What are pieces of evidence to support this notion?
The ancient writers did describe psychotic symptoms including hallucinations and delusions. However, in almost every case the psychosis cleared. There are no reports that describe an initial psychotic break in late adolescence or early adulthood with a chronic unremitting course. The absence of a condition that looks like schizophrenia stands in contrast to the good clinical descriptions of other neuropsychiatric syndromes. This softly suggests
that the illness was not present in ancient Greece or Rome.
How does population density(urbanization) relate to the risk of developing schizophrenia?
There is considerable evidence that people born and/or raised in urban settings are at greater risk for developing schizophrenia.
What is enlarged in patients with schizophrenia? And how does this relate to gray matter volume changes?
-the lateral ventricles are enlarged
-Patients with schizophrenia show consistent but subtle decreases in total brain volume and total gray matter volume.
-** patients with schizophrenia have the same number of neurons as healthy controls, but they are packed together in less space (the reduced neurophil hypothesis)
-These results provide an explanation for the increased ventricle size; that is, the ventricles expand to fill the void left by the loss of gray matter.
The cognitive impairments have been described as being due to "hypofrontality". What does this mean? Be able to describe an experiment that supports this.
The pattern of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia implicates the frontal cortex. "Hypofrontality"
Be able to describe a gene that has been implicated in schizophrenia where, it's expression changes specifically in interneurons. What neurotransmitter does this gene effect? How might a change in function of these interneurons effect information processing?
-The activity of the large pyramidal neurons in the gray matter is modulated by smaller local interneurons
-Most of the interneurons are γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons and hence inhibitory.
-GABA is synthesized from a number of enzymes, one of which is called glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). (GAD67) has been shown repeatedly to be decreased in patients with schizophrenia.
-So the GABA neurons that are implicated in schizophrenia are not limited in number, but have decreased expression of important genes that might impair the function of the cortex.
• A disruption of White matter tracts has been implicated in schizophrenia. Remember that white matter tracks are myelinated axons. The axons become myelinated by oligodentrocytes wrapping around the axons. This serves to insulate the axons and allow the flow of actions potentials down the axon without the loss of signal. It also increases the rate at which action potential travel down an axon. So a disruption of integrity of the white matter, leads to What?
-Schizophrenia also appears to be a disorder of disrupted connectivity. Disruption of the integrity of the white matter (myelinated axons) tracks leads to degradation of the neuronal signal.
-MRI studies on patients and controls have found a small but nonsignificant trend toward reduced white matter in schizophrenia.
Evidence supporting the disruption of white matter tracts comes from a loss of what type of cells in the schizophrenic brain?
What is the approximate degree of inheritance of schizophrenia?
Those who have a third degree relative with schizophrenia are twice as likely to develop schizophrenia as those in the general population. Those with a second degree relative have a several-fold higher incidence of schizophrenia than the general population, and first degree relatives have an incidence of schizophrenia an order of magnitude higher than the general populace.
Name 4 environmental influences that increase one's risk of developing schizophrenia.
-children born to schizophrenic mothers
-raised in more dysfunctional family environments
Be able to describe a gene environment interaction involving the COMT gene that effects the chance of developing psychosis. What does the COMT gene do? % affected? Symptoms?
cannabis use is a statistical risk factor for the emergence of psychosis, ranging from psychotic symptoms (such as hallucinations and delusions) to clinically significant disorders (such as schizophrenia). However, not everyone develops psychosis so some individuals may be genetically vulnerable to its effects.
-Catechol-O-methyl transferase is involved in the inactivation of the catecholamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine).
-symptoms: psychotic symptoms and to develop schizophrenia-spectrum disorder
schizophrenia may be caused by underactivation of the frontal lobes.
schizophrenia results from excess synaptic dopamine or increased postsynaptic sensitivity to it.
-Drugs that increase dopamine (agonists): Result in schizophrenic-like behavior
-Drugs that decrease dopamine (antagonists):
Reduce schizophrenic-like behavior
**Dopamine hypothesis is problematic and overly simplistic
caused by repeated use of amphetamines; resembles schizophrenia with paranoia, delusions, and auditory hallucinations.
Schizophrenia reflects diminished activation of NMDA receptors in the brain.
-Observed behavioral effects of phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine
1.)Neither affects dopaminergic transmission.
2.)Both affect synapses that use glutamate as a neurotransmitter.
3.)Inhibit NMDA receptors
Why doesn't the dopamine hypothesis explain everything?
-Schizophrenics have normal DA metabolite levels
-Drugs block D2 receptors much faster than symptoms are reduced
-Some patients show no change
What are Neuroleptics or antipsychotics used to treat?
Conventional neuroleptics, such as chlorpromazine and haloperidol, act at D2 receptors
-Reduce the positive symptoms of schizophrenia
Most drugs used to treat Schizophrenia effect what neurotransmitter and what receptor? Are they agonists or antagonists of this receptor?
Typical neuroleptic/antipsychotic drugs are all antagonists (blocking) at dopamine D2 receptors.
Give an example of a side effect of typical antipsychotic drugs?
-tardive dyskinesia: shows repetitive movements involving the face, mouth, lips, and tongue
What do we call the distortion of voluntary movement?
When schizophrenics are on antipsychotics for extended periods of time, receptors in the brain can up regulate resulting in what?
What Drug acts on the NMDA glutamate receptor and can induce positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
What are Neuroleptics or antipsychotics used to treat?
What's the typical clinical course of schizophrenia?
The typical clinical course of schizophrenia includes a relatively normal childhood interrupted in late adolescence or early adulthood by a dramatic deterioration from which few remit.
the process of acquiring new information
the ability to store and retrieve information.
sensory info is encoded into short-term memory "learning"
information may be consolidated into long-term storage
storage info is retrieved
short-term memories: remembering a phone number long enough to dial it
long-term memories: remembering what you did for your last birthday
What kind of things can cause amnesia?
-disease can damage the medial temporal lobe
-ischemia-an episode of reduced blood supply to the brain, through stroke or heart attack
serious loss of memory and/or ability to learn (causes: concussion, chronic alcoholism, encephalitis, brain tumor, stroke)
caused by trauma
no other cognitive deficits (rare)
memory loss for things prior to brain trauma (loss of memories before onset of amnesia)
inability to form new memories after brain trauma
transient global amnesia
-sudden onset of anterograde amnesia
-lasts a shorter period, from temporary ischemia (ex: severe blow to the head)
-symptoms: disoriented, ask same questions repeatedly; attacks subside in couple of hours; permanent memory gap
what happened to patient H.M? what type of amnesia did he have?
damage to the hippocampus. H.M's surgery removed the amygdala, the hippocampus, and some cortex. Suffered from anterograde amnesia (inability to form memories after onset of a disorder)
how was it determined that procedural (implicit) memory was spared?
removal of temporal lobes had no effect on perception, intelligence, personality
-impaired declarative memory, but spared procedural memory (mirror drawing)
declarative (explicit) memory
things you know that you can tell others
non-declarative (implicit) memory
shown by performance rather than recollection
consists of the recollection of singular events in the life of a person. It is the memory of life experiences centered on yourself
all explicit memory that is not autobiographical. Ex: knowledge of historical events and figures, ability to recognize friends and acquaintances, info in school, etc
learning to perform a task requiring motor coordination
an earlier stimulus influences response to a later stimulus
the association of two stimuli, or of a stimulus and a response
2 types of non associative learning
a decreased response to repeated presentations of a stimulus
prior strong stimulation increases response to most stimuli
2 types of associative learning
classical and instrumental
type of learning involves the association between 2 stimuli
classical (pavlovian conditioning) conditioning
a neutral stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a response
the part of memory responsible for recording informations about one's environment and its spatial orientation (find way around city or rat find food at the end of a maze)
water morris maze
learning Morris water maze requires hippocampus
-place cells fire when animal is in specific place
-place fields dynamic
What part of the brain appears to be particularly important for spatial memory?
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
PY 253 FINAL
Bio Psych Part Two
PSYC 401 Final Exam Study Guide
Neurology Final Exam
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Diseases: Cause and Features
Aquatic Bio Exam 3
Senior project #2