Upgrade to remove ads
BIO 216 practice exam
Terms in this set (69)
collection of axons that carries information between the central nervous system and the peripheral effectors are called
brain's interpretation of stimuli is called
in the arm, the biceps brachii is a flexor wheras triceps brachii is an extensor, what is true
the biceps brachii is the primary muscle responsible for movement of the hand and forearm towards the shoulder
the falling phase of the action potential is due primarily to
K flow out of the cell
in smooth muscle, the small protein chain that regulates contraction and relaxation
myosin light chain
statement about the hypothalamus that is FALSE
it receives sensory fibers from the optic tract, ears, and spinal cord
a chemical synapse ALWAYS include
axon terminal, presynaptic cell, synaptic cleft, postsynaptic cleft
when more action potentials arrive at the axon terminal, how are neurotransmitters affected?
more molecules are released into the synapse
an enhancement of the postsynaptic cell's response to a constant stimulus that lasts for a period of time from hours to weeks is called?
most of the time, the parallel thick and thin filaments of myofibrils are connected by _______ that span the space between the parallel thick and thin filaments
tetrodotoxin is a toxin that blocks voltage-gated sodium channels. What effect does this substance have on the function of neurons?
the neuron is not able to propogate action potentials
general anesthetics keep surgical patients unconscious by reducing activity in the
Largest part of the brain. Controls all voluntary activities; receives and interprets sensory information.
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
Part of the brainstem that controls vital life-sustaining functions such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion.
effects of cortisol
1. regulates body's response to stress 2. anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects 3. suppresses bone and cartilage formation 4. stimulates gastric acid secretion 5. regulates metabolism - Increase blood glucose level: counteract insulin, stimulate liver glucose, production, reduce glucose uptake, Protein: promote protein breakdown to transfer to liver for gluconeogenesis, Fat: promote lypolysis, mobilization of fat store
Name the muscle type based on the histological features: • Actin and myosin in sarcomeres; striated; multinuclear; lacks gap junctions; troponin:calcium binding; T tubules and SR forming triadic contacts; highest ATPase activity; no calcium channels
Name the muscle type based on these descriptions: • Involuntary contraction, uninuclear nonstriated fibers, actin and myosin not forming banding pattern; lack of T tubules, gap junctions, and calmodulin.
Vouluntary, striated muscle that moves bones, works in pairs and is attatched to bones by tendons
involuntary muscle found inside many internal organs of the body
smooth muscle lacks what protein?
which brain area is considered to be the integrating center for homeostasis
calcium is important in the synapse because it
signals the exocytosis of the transmitter
which does NOT contribute to the protection of the brain?
a. cerebral space b. cranium c. dura mater d. subarachnoid space (a is the answer)
which of the following will increase the conduction rate of action potentials?
increase the diameter of the axon membrane to ion leakage
at the conclusion of the power stroke
actin has been moved to the M line
inorganic phosphate has been released from the myosin
ADP is released from the myosin head
_______ is made of multiple globular molecules polymerized to form long chains of filaments
neurotransmitters are released from the
in the body, the bones acts as a _______ whereas the joints form the ______, so that the muscles attached to the bones can create force when they contract
the contraction cycle is triggered by hte rise in ______ released from the cell
to increase the amount of neurotransmitter released onto a postsynaptic cell, the presynaptic cell would have to _______
send action potentials with higher frequency
spatial summation refers to
multiple graded potentials originating from different locations arriving at one location simultneously
the Nernst equation predicts
the membrane potential resulting from permeability to a single ion
Which of the following is the location where action potentials originate?
the power stroke begins when
-the inorganic phosphate and ADP are released from the myosin
-helps avoid fatigue during sustained muscle contraction
Language and verbal skills tend to be ___ side of the brain right handed people
concentrated on the left side
The H zone contains
Which statement is true?
-as the sarcomere shortens, the two Z disks at each end move closer together, and the I band and H zone virtually disappear
-the thin actin filaments slide along the thick myosin filaments as they move toward the M line in the center of the sarcomere
The absolute refractory period of an action potential
-allows a neuron to ignore a second signal send that closely follows the first
-ensures a one way travel down the axon
-prevents summation of action potentials
The nervous system is composed of which two types of cells
neurons and glial
The multiple thin, branched structures on a neuron whose main function is to receive incoming signals are the
In the first phase of triggering an action potential in a neuron, Na ions flow in and
activate the sodium and potassium pump
An excitatory postsynaptic potential
depolarized a neuron, increasing the liklihood of an action potential
the letter assigned to the structure stands for the German word for middle, it is the attachment site for the thick filaments
the darkest band, with the most overlapping filaments, the abbreviation derives from its property of scattering light unevenly
the structures that serve as the attachment site for the thin filaments and mark the boundaries for one sarcomere
the lightest color bands of the sarcomere, occupied only by thin filaments
primary somatic sensory cortex
contains corticospinal tracts, the pyramids, and control centers for breathing, swallowing, and blood pressure
small area that relays signals for auditory and visual reflexes as well as eye movement
relay station for transfer of information between the cerebrum and cerebellum, coordinated breathing control with other areas
network to coordinate arousal and sleep, but also involved in blood pressure regulation and pain modulation
6 effects of cortisol
1. promotes glucogenesis
2. breaks down skeletal muscle protein
3. enhances lipolysis
4. suppresses the immune system
5. causes negative calcium balance
6. influences brain function
describe how calcium initiates skeletal muscle contraction
When the muscle is stimulated by a neuron, calcium is released from the SR into the cytosol of the muscle cell. Calcium binds to troponin, causing troponin/tropomyosin complex to shift away from myosin-binding sites. Myosin and actin reacts according the sliding filament theory.
three areas of the brain and function
cerebrum-perception, voluntary movement, emotion
brain stem-eye movement, breathing, involuntary movement
-attached to bones with tendons
-fast contraction speed
-somatic motor neuron control of contraction
-contracts as single unit
-slow contraction speed
-autonomic motor neuron control of contraction
Uses neurotransmitters to carry information from one cell to the next. Electrical signal is converted to a chemical signal that crosses the synaptic cleft. Neurotransmitter binding with its receptor on the postsynptic cell either initiates an electrical response (fast) or a second messenger pathway (slow).
A type of synapse at which a chemical (a
neurotransmitter) is released from teh axon of a
neuron into the ysnaptic cleft where it binds to
receptors on the next structure in sequence, either
another neuron or an organ.
A chemical synapse ALWAYS includes __________.
1. axon terminal
2. presynaptic cell
3. synaptic cleft
4. postsynaptic cell
Excitatory (EPSPs) occur when
sodium channels are opened.
excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
an electrical change (depolarization) in the membrane of a postsynaptic neuron caused by the binding of an excitatory neurotransmitter from a presynaptic cell to a postsynaptic receptor; makes it more likely for a postsynaptic neuron to generate an action potential
depolarizes a neuron, making it easier to fire.
graded potentials may
depolorize the membrane to the threshold voltage, initiate an action potential, hyperpolarize the membrane
When two or more graded potentials arrive at the trigger zone of a neuron's axon
the neuron will rupture. Scientists are still studying this phenomenon.
What happens when a graded potential reaches the axon hillock?
It is either inhibitory and nothing happens or excitatory and causes depolorization again. If the axon hillock on the postsynaptic neuron reaches threshold potential then an impulse is transmitted and action potential is reached all over again.
This set is often in folders with...
Exam 3 - Muscle Tissue
Muscles of the Shoulder and Arm
BIO 210 (UNIT #3 Lecture) CH 9 Muscle an…
You might also like...
BIO 216 practice exam
BIO 216 practice exam
PET 3322 EXAM 2
Anatomy and Physiology exam 3
Other sets by this creator
Isolated and Integrated Muscle Functions
the principle of specificity: the said principle
Protein Ch. 5 (F&N)
Magnesium and Calcium
Other Quizlet sets
Anatomy Exam 4
A and P text 3
anatomy final exam
A&P Final Exam