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Frederick Douglass argued that:

slaves were truer to the principles of the Declaration of Independence than were most white Americans

The U.S. slave population by 1860 was approximately

4 million

Which of the following was NOT true of the South and slavery in nineteenth-century America

In the South as a whole, slaves made up only 10 percent of the population

In the nineteenth century, what product was the world's major crop produced by slave labor?


Approximately how much of the world's cotton supply came from the southern United States?

75 percent

The internal slave trade in the United States involved the movement of hundreds of thousands of enslaved persons from:

older states like Virginia to the Lower South

What economic effect did southern slavery have on the North?

Southern slavery helped finance industrialization and internal improvements in the North.

The term "Lords of the Loom" refers to:

early New England factory owners

Which of the following is a true statement relative to the Upper South and the Deep South?

Several Upper South states did not join the Confederacy at the time of the Civil War.

Which of the following was NOT true of the South and its economy in the period from 1800 to 1860?

The South produced nearly two-fifths of the nation's manufactured goods, especially cotton textiles.

In 1860, what percentage of southern white families were in the slaveowning class?

25 percent

Southern farmers in the backcountry

generally worked the land using family labor.

The relationship between rich southern planters and poor southern farmers

benefited in part from a sense of unity bred by criticism from outsiders.

Andrew Johnson of Tennessee and Joseph Brown of Georgia rose to political power:

in the 1850s, as members of the small but influential southern Republican Party.

In 1850, a majority of southern slaveholders owned how many slaves?

1 to 5

To qualify as a member of the planter class, a person had to be engaged in southern agriculture and:

own at least twenty slaves

From 1840 to 1860, the price of a "prime field hand

rose about 80 percent, which made it harder for southern whites to enter the slaveholding class.

What event is credited with helping to ingrain the paternalist ethos more deeply into the lives of southern slaveholders?

the closing of the African slave trade

In the South, the paternalist ethos

reflected the hierarchical society in which the planter took responsibility for the lives of those around him.

What did the Reverend Charles C. Jones of Georgia NOT do?

urge an end to slavery

By the late 1830s, the South's proslavery argument:

claimed that slavery was essential to human economic and cultural progress.

Who said that the language in the Declaration of Independence—that all men were created equal and entitled to liberty—was "the most false and dangerous of all political errors"?

John C. Calhoun

The end of slavery in most Latin American nations

involved gradual emancipation accompanied by recognition of owners' legal rights to slave property

Defenders of American slavery claimed that British emancipation in the 1830s had been a failure because

the freed slaves grew less sugar cane, which hurt the economy of the Caribbean

John C. Calhoun and George Fitzhugh

agreed that slavery was not a necessary evil but something actually positive and good.

Which of the following statements about slavery and the law is true?

Slaves accused of serious crimes were entitled to their day in court, although they faced all-white judges and juries.

Celia was:

a slave tried for killing her master while resisting a sexual assault.

Why did southern slaves live in better conditions by the mid-nineteenth century than those in the Caribbean and South America?

The rising value of slaves made it profitable for slaveowners to take better care of them.

In an 1840 letter written from Canada, fugitive slave Joseph Taper asked for divine blessings upon:

Queen Victoria

Bennet Barrow's advice to slaveowners on slave discipline (based on rules for slaves at his Highland Plantation in Louisiana) included all of the following EXCEPT:

Allow slaves to grow some of their own food to cut down on costs.

Free blacks in the South were allowed to:

own property

What was the name of the vibrant community of former slaves freed by Virginian Richard Randolph

Israel Hill

Free blacks in the United States:

sometimes became wealthy enough to own slaves

of the following statements are true of the work done by southern slaves EXCEPT:

slaves worked exclusively as agricultural field hands and house servants.

On the plantation, the white employee in charge of ensuring a profitable crop for the plantation master was called the:


Task labor

allowed slaves to take on daily jobs, set their own pace, and work on their own when they were done.

Urban slaves:

most often were domestic servants.

The plantation masters had many means to maintain order among their slaves. According to the text, what was the most powerful weapon the plantation masters had?

the threat of sale

Slave families

were more common in the West Indies, where living conditions favored their formation and survival

Jumping over a broomstick was a ceremony celebrating

a slave marriage

Gender roles under slavery

differed from those of white society because men and women alike suffered a sense of powerlessness

Slave religion

combined African traditions and Christian beliefs

Which of the following statements about religious life among African-Americans in southern cities is true?

Urban free blacks sometimes formed their own churches

Which of the following stories did NOT play a central role in black Christianity

Noah and the ark

The Brer Rabbit stories of slave folklore

celebrated how the weak could outsmart the more powerful.

Compared to slave revolts in Brazil and in the West Indies, slave revolts in the United States were:

smaller in scale and less frequent

"Silent sabotage" can be defined as when slaves

did poor work and broke tools

Fugitive slaves

generally understood that the North Star led to freedom

Historians estimate that approximately ____________ slaves per year escaped to the North or Canada.


Harriet Tubman

was a fugitive slave who risked her life many times to bring others out of slavery.

Denmark Vesey's conspiracy

reflected a combination of American and African influences.

Joseph Cinqué led a slave rebellion:

aboard the Amistad.

Which statement about Nat Turner's Rebellion is true?

Many southern whites were in a panic after the rebellion

After an 1831 slave rebellion, which state's legislature debated, but did not approve, a plan for gradual emancipation of slaves in that state


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