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Human Geography Mid Term #2
Terms in this set (86)
A series of revolutionary uprisings in the Maghreb and the Middle East that started in 2010 and that are still running their course. These revolutionary up-swellings are attempted to replace dictatorial regimes left behind in Arab states following European decolonization with polities that reflect the will of the people. Quite what that means in practice remains to be seen.
Borders and bordering
The act of creating borders that designate the ownership of a land mass.
A political and economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and the distribution of wealth, property, and income through the mechanism of the free market. This system is regulated to varying degrees by liberal democratic states.
The maximum number of people the earth (or any other defined territory) is able to sustain given known resources and current technology.
The change in climate due to anthropogenic means.
A period from 1945 to the early 1990's when the world became polarized into two camps, those who supported the United States and cherished liberal democratic capitalist systems and those who supported the USSR and wished to see a communist world predicted upon state control and central planning.
Commodity Chains (also called value/supply chains)
The stages, locations, and materials required to produce a commodity.
raw materials that come from particular parts of the world where conflict is occuring and affects the mining and trading of these minerals.
Adherents to the view that the earth has limitless supplies of resources and is more that capable of sustaining and nourishing the human population irrespectiv of the size to which it might grow.
The study of peoples interaction with the world around them. How the human and the environement impact each other.
The etching, engravings, deposits , and imprint of human activities on the surface of the earth. Cultural landscapes are built environments that are inscribed onto natural environements.
breakdown of Euro colonialism and rise of independent former colonial states.
A world that results when bold experiments to change the world for the better end up changing it for the worse, aggravating rather than ameliorating human suffering, poverty, oppression, and misery.
Events in one country will cause similar events in other countries.
The amount of useful land and sea area necessary to supply the resources a human population consumes and to assimilate human waste. The ecological footprint is a measure of the scale of the human impact on the natural environment through resource exploitation and pollution.
The doctrine that responsibility to ameliorate the environment challenges facing humankind today should be borne in proportion to the ecological footprint particular societies create and their capacities to change without further impovershing vulnerable groups.
Fordism and Post-Fordism (Boyle ch. 4)
Fordism: An approach to production that seeks to use rigid divisions of labor and assembly lines to improve productivity. Fordism lay behind the rise of mass production in the twentieth century.
Post-Fordism: An approach to industrial production that emphasizes flexibility and small-batch production of niche goods for specialized markets.
The developed world and the undeveloped world
the communication and ties between people, companies, and governments.
spatial international relations
Human Development Index (HDI)
A composite measure employed by the United Nations to gauge the level of development of a country.
Colonial and decolonial eras merge together.
small scale political interaction
Nations who enjoy the privleges of sovereign statehood
Nationalism and the Nation
A group feeling of pride or honor for a specific region
Neo-Malthusianism (and Neo-Malthusianists)
Scholars who draw inspiration from the writings of English Anglican curate, demographer, and economist Thomas R Mathus and who try to put Malthus's ideas to work to make sense of the world today.
New International Division of Labor (NIDL)
The exploitation by transnational corporations (TNCs) of variable wage and skill levels across the globe. TNCs locate different "bits" of their operations to different regions to produce goods as cheaply as possible.
ideal standard or model
Old International Division of Labor (OIDL)
A division of labor introduced by the rise of European-led world capitalist economy. THe OIDL envisages the world to be organized around a core (manufacturing heartland), a periphery (supplying the core with raw materials and cheap labor) and a semi-periphery (performing roles normally undertaken by both the core and hte periphery).
Resources that aren't renewable. Once they are consumed they can't come back.
negotiations of power and status.
The study of human interaction (ex. economics) and the environment.
The study of populations
How to move beyond 500 years of colonial history.
A global economic process. A unified world is made to hide the instability and inequality.
Resources that nature replenishes at a faster rate than they are used by humanity.
Scientific Management (Boyle ch. 4)
The scientific study of production processes motivated by the goal of improving productivity and efficiency.
Social Construction (Social Constructs)
The ways in which different cultures represent, depict, frame, and imagine people, places, and things. In addition, this term refers to the role of culture in making social inequalities (on the bases of social class, gender, ethnicity, sexuality, age, disibility, and so on) seem perfectly "normal" and "natural."
The rights of a people to enjoy absolute rule over a territory.
Spatial division of labor
The roles undertaken by regions in a given division of labor.
Claims made by people to ownership over a territory.
Spanning over multiple territories.
The perfect or ideal world. Literally, paradise or heaven on this earth.
Western Cultural Institutions
Science Free Market
Property Rights The rule of law
Medicine or Civil society
(1936-2015) Wrote "Imagined Communities" in 1983.
A Native American tribe in North Dakota that is protesting the construction of a pipeline going through sacred land.
Homi K. Bhabha
(1949) Wrote "Narrating the Nation" in 1990. Talks about how a countries history is narrated through, art, music, poetry, and stories.
(1907-1964) Marine biologist who studied the chemical that were put into the environment and their effects. She wrote Silent spring.
coalition of Human right organizations, trade unions, investors, business associations.
Frantz Fanon (Boyle, ch. 6)
A french trained psychiatrist and anti-colonial activist. Wrote "The Wretched Earth" the bible for anticolonial liberation movements. Disgusted by the propaganda that the powers used to depict the colonized people as inferiors.
A tribe that migrates with the caribou that move across the US and Canadian border.
(1929) German. European enlightenment and 'universal truths.' Frankfurt school.
A tribe on the US/Mexican border that has run into issues going across the border. It has ruined migration and culture.
(1766-1834) Believed that the earth could only support some much life nad we were exceeding it. There is a carrying capacity.
Wrote "Spatial division of Labor" (1984).
Wisconsin's senator who began the red scare. A movement to remove any suspected communist from society.
Raise Hope for Congo
Campaign dedicated to advocating for human rights in DRC. Especially the role conflict minerals in funding local violence.
(1935-2003). Wrote "Orientalism" (1978). The Orient, the others, are an object of fascination for the west. Studies the orients in establishing colnial control.
Walt Whitman Rostow
(1916-2003) Wrote "The stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto (1960).
(1930) Wrote "The modern world system: Capitalist Agriculture and the origins (1974). The core, Periphery, semi-periphery, and External areas.
Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights
A non-governmental agency that is attmepting to raise awarness to fight the cotton harvesting.
An international orignization that gives money to developing countries to spur growth.
The countries that produce coffee, south America, consume the least. The countries that consume the most produce the least.
Colonialism and Decolonization in Africa
Brought different cultural group into the same region. Brought instability afterwards becasue dictatorships came into power and the people never got along in the regions to begin with.
The idea that humans will cause their on demise.
Garbage Crisis in Delhi (Boyle, ch. 8)
In New Delhi India they are producing lots of waste and disposing of it in illegal areas. The waste that is disposed of correctly is put in improper landfills that are missing the leachate. The waste is gone through by the Untouchables, The lowest cast in society. They recycle anything they can find of value. The city is planning to create an incinerator to dispose of trash. They are making a pyramid that prioritizes resources: Prevention, minimization, reuse, recycling, energy recovery, disposal.
IAT Occupation of Alcatraz Island (Boyle, ch. 6)
The Indian of all Tribes (IAT) occuped Alcatraz. They stayed on the land when their demands for museums of native heritage to be placed on the island. The governent counter offered with a museum on land, the IAT refused. The goverenment then cut off the utilities. The daughter of one of the IAT died ccausing the movement to suffer. The movement failed but it reawakened the longstanding grievenses of native american tribes and interest in their history, culture, spirituality, and rights.
Instability amoungst hte nation. The north communist and the south capitalist form. The two go to war with the south being supported by the French and the US.
Smart tech (phones, laptops, tablets) commodity chains
Parts are made all over the world in poor countries.
Tantalum mining in Democratic Republic of Congo
A conflict zone for mining. It is used in elctronics. It is mined by hand in relativly poor conditions.
The Tohono O'odham Nation
A native American tribe on the US/ Mexico border that struggle migrating and keeping tradiotinos alive with the border.
United Nations Development Programme Millennium Development Goals (Boyle ch. 4)
Goals made in 2000 that UN Member states agreed upon. Designed to transform the plight of the world's poor. There are 18 targets (and 48 indicators or measures of progress) and 8 goals that are trying to be met by 2015.
1)Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
2) Achieve universal primary education
3) Promote gender equality and empower women
4)Reduce child mortality
5) Improve maternal health
6) Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
7) Ensure environementl sustainability
8) Develop a global partnership for development
Uzbekistan's cotton harvest
Uzbekistan makes its citizens pick cotton during harvest season so that the rich political figures can get wealthier. If the citizens don't cooperate they can be punished by the government.
US/Mexico border militarization
After 9/11 the US has built up its borders as a means of protection. A side effect is that migration has been hampered.
"A Global Sense of Place"
(1984) Written by Doreen Massey. Transportation is faster and more used in all sectors of life. Globalization creates 'power geometries.'
(1983) Written by Benedict Anderson. A nation will have a similar identity that unites it. An emotional identity.
"Limits to Growth"
(1972) A book written by MIT professors that use computer models to outline the extent that growth can occur while sustaining the human population.
"Murdock Ethnic Map"
Murdock's map that attempted to demonstarate all the different ethnic groups in africa.
"Narrating the Nation"
(1990) Written by Homi k Bhabha. How a nation is narrated through stories, artwork, music, and poetry.
(1978)Written by Edward Said. Orient vs occident. The orient as an object of western curiosity. The orient establishing colonial control.
(1962) Written by Rachel Carson. Addressed the issue of the environement. The use of differnete chemicals and their unstudied effects on the environement and human health.
"The Spatial Division of Labor"
Written by Doreen Massey in 1984.Discusses transnational production methods chasing the cheapest labor costs for each step. Spatial analysis rooted around industry rather than development of states.
"The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto"
Book written by Walt Whitman Rostow (1916-2003)
Traditional society; Preconditions for take off; Take off; Drive to maturity; High Mass Consumption
The Wretched of the Earth (Boyle, ch. 6)
Written by Frantz Fanon (1961). It was the bible for liberation movemnts in colonies. It told the people to rise up and take arms to repel the european powers.
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