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Which of the following does histamine NOT directly cause?

anaphylactic shock

Which of the following would NOT be an example of a common allergen?

hay fever

A patient enters the emergency room with itchy, swollen hives. This is an example of a ___________ allergic response called __________.

localized; urticaria

Which type of vaccine could possibly cause a person to develop the disease?

Attenuated live vaccine

What is the hallmark of a conjugated vaccine?

These vaccines contain weakly antigenic elements plus a more potent antigenic protein

The influenza vaccine is an example of an

inactivated killed vaccine.

What is the function of boosters?

Boosters are injections that are given periodically to maintain immunity.

The Hepatitis B vaccine is which type of vaccine?

Subunit vaccine

What is the most efficient and cost-effective way to control infectious diseases?

active immunization by vaccination

Killed vaccines work by stimulating

the production of antibodies.

The process of reducing the virulence of a microbe is known as attenuation.


Which of the following is NOT considered a hypersensitivity reaction?

immune system attack on the thyroid gland

Which of the following immunoglobulins is produced by plasma cells in response to an allergen?


Which of the following is an example of a type I hypersensitivity reaction?

watery eyes after exposure to animal dander

What does a vaccine contain?

Weakened or killed pathogen or parts of a pathogen

When a person has previously been vaccinated against a viral pathogen, which cells are activated if that same pathogen re-enters the host's cells months or years later?

Memory cytotoxic T cells

What is the primary benefit of vaccination?

An immune response will occur quicker upon future exposure to the pathogen.

Hypotheses explaining the development of autoimmune disease include

molecular mimicry, genetic factors, and hormonal stimulation of cytotoxic T cells.

Which of the following bind the constant region of IgE?

eosinophils and mast cells

If an Rh-positive woman marries an Rh-negative man, their children are at risk for hemolytic disease of the newborn.


What is the underlying problem in most acquired immunodeficiencies?

declining cell-mediated immunity

HIV, the virus responsible for AIDS, is a member of what family?


Opportunistic infections typical of AIDS but rare otherwise include

Pneumocystis pneumonia and Kaposi's sarcoma.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is an effective cure for HIV infection.


A vaccine is currently available against which of the following microbes?


Which receptor on the helper T-cell recognizes the specific antigen from an antigen-presenting cell?


TH2 cells produce cytokines that activate

B cells.

Which proteins on the antigen-presenting cell are recognized by the helper T-cell?

MHC proteins

When do helper T-cells develop into TH1 or TH2 cells?

After proliferation into a clonal population

Natural killer cells are activated by

TH1 cells.

What direct effect do histamines and leukotrienes have on capillaries?

They allow capillary walls to open and become leaky.

Diapedesis is

the migration of phagocytes through blood vessels to the site of tissue damage.

Why is vasodilation important to tissue repair?

It allows for an increased delivery of oxygen, nutrients, and phagocytes to the site of damage.

Pus is comprised of

dead phagocytes.

Which of the following can release histamines?

Cells from damaged tissues and the complement pathway

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