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Plessy V Ferguson 1
Terms in this set (79)
De Jure Segregation
races kept apart by law.
races choose not to be apart
Buys ticket from new orlean to louisians. pays higher fare for nice sesats. gets arrested. claims act unconsitutional.
say law is unconsitutional
says law is consitutional
agrees with prosecutor
Plessy tries to
get appellate court to stop prosecution (writ of prohibition) opposite of mandamus
On full review
decides law is constitutional.
- 14th amendment does not "abolish distinctions based on color" or enforce "social, as distinguished from political, equality, or a commingly of two races upon terms unsatisfactory to the other"
- allows gov't to consider race as long as there is equality of otreatment.
Separation of races (throughout America but mostly in the south from 1877-1960s)
Jim Crow Laws
Laws that segregated whites and blacks.
Booker T. Washington
Believed vocational education would lead to equality.
Co-founder of the NAACP
Training to learn a trade (for a job).
Plessy v. Ferguson
Court case that legalized "separate but equal."
Separate but Equal
Idea that races could be segregated as long as both had equal opportunities.
African American leader that proposed the "Back to Africa" movement.
Illegal murder (hanging) by a mob.
Showing preference/favoritism to one race.
Stage character created in the 1830s that portrayed African Americans as joyous dancing fools.
Booker T. Washington
Co-founded the Tuskegee Institute
Received a Ph.D from Fisk Univeristy
Demanded racial equality
Booker T. Washington
Born a slave and graduated from Hampton University
Organization that worked (and still does) for African American equality.
Spoke out against injustice of lynching in the south (was forced to move to Chicago)
African American that was arrested for challenging the "Separate Car Act" in Louisiana.
Ruled against Plessy that the "Separate Car Act" was legal.
Forced African Americans to pass a literacy (reading) test in order to vote.
Charged African Americans to vote.
Not considered a citizen until 1924
Speech by Booker T. Washington promoting social segregation
"Birth of a Nation"
Film produced that glorified the south and KKK in 1911
A magazine produced by the NAACP and W.E.B. Dubois
The Niagara Movement
W.E.B Dubois organized; a more demanding approach to fighting segregation
Plessy vs Ferguson 1896
Supreme court case that violated the 14th amendment ; jim crow laws were set up because of this
This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
jim crow laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
the great migration
The migration of thousands of African-Americans from the South to the North. African Americans were looking to escape the problems of racism in the South and felt they could seek out better jobs and an overall better life in the North.
de facto segregation
segregation by custom and tradition
de jure segregation
segregation that is imposed by law
executive order 8802
prohibits racial discrimination by federal agencies and all companies engaged in war work
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to work for racial equality.
brilliant howard university law professor who served as chief legal council of NAACP
first African American Supreme Court Justice
brown vs board of education of topeka
Denied 8 yr old, Linda Brown, Rights to an all white school near her house when the closest black school was 21 blocks away. This declared segregation in schooling unconstitutional
Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War in 1866. The Southern establishment took charge by passing discriminatory laws known as the black codes. Gives whites almost unlimited power. They masked themselves and burned black churches, schools, and terrorized black people. They are anti-black and anti-Semitic.
A document signed by 101 US congressman opposing the desegregation of schools. All of them were southern democrats, with the exception of two republicans from Virginia.
The court issued another decision known as this to provide rules for implementing the 1954 order. It said that schools must work to desegregate "with all deliberate speed." Eisenhower enforced
supported segregation (arkansas)
little rock nine
In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students. The governor ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. The next day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year.
civil rights act of 1957
primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted by Congress in the United States since Reconstruction.
President in 1960's who pushed through the Civil Rights act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
montgomery bus boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
montgomery improvement association
Organization formed by African Americans in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1956 to strengthen the bus boycott and to coordinate protest efforts of African Americans; led by Martin Luther King Jr.
14 year old who flirted with a white woman
(Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)-a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination; they were the ones primarily responsible for creating the sit-in movement
an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi (born in 1933) won rights to register at university of mississippi
refused to allow james meredith to enroll
letter from a birmingham jail
MLK wrote while in prison
was forced by jfk to desegregate university of Alabama
wwll vet and NAACP field secretary was murdered by a white supremacist
march on washington
In August 1963, civil rights leaders organized a massive rally in Washington to urge passage of President Kennedy's civil rights bill. The high point came when MLK Jr., gave his "I Have a Dream" speech to more than 200,000 marchers in front of the Lincoln Memorial. planned by a Phillip Randolph
civil rights act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
In the summer of 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote; SNCC, CORE, SCLC, NAACP
fannie lou hamer
spokesperson for the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the 1964 Democratic Convention
jimmy lee jackson
an African American boy who was killed defending his grandmother from state troopers
voting rights act of 1965
eliminated literacy test as a voting requirement
white families move out of the cities in favor of the suburbs
Harlem,watts & other cities
was a African-American Human Rights activist and minister
leader of nation of islam
"Back power" advoctae supports sncc, dislikes mlks passiuveness, similar to radical malcolm X, doesnt want qhites in civil rights group
Black civil rights group who advocated for violent retaliation to inequality and for separatism amongst blacks and whites.
james earl ray
convicted of killing Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968 and sentenced to 99 years in jail
assassinated Robert Kennedy
group set up to investigate the causes of race riots in American cities in the 1960s
civil rights act of 1968
this law banned discrimination in housing, the segregation of education, transprotation, and employment, it helped African Americans gain their full votin rights.
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