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Spinal Cord, Reflexes Lab Quiz

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Where does the spinal cord terminate
L-L2 at the conus medullaris
How many pairs of vertebrae
31
Sensory neuron cell bodies are found in an enlarged area of the dorsal root called
gray commissure
Fiber tracts conducting sensory impulses to the brain are called ascending or
sensory
ventral rami of spinal nerves except for t2 to t12 form complex network of nerves known as
plexuses
injuries to the _____ cause weakness or paralysis of the entire upper limb
brachial
how many cervical spinal nerves
8, 7 vertebrae but one nerve arises from above
how many thoracic spinal nerves
12
how many lumbar spinal nerves
5
how many sacral spinal nerves
5
fight or flight
sympathetic
rest and digest
parasympathetic
ventral roots contain
myelinated axons
almost immediately after each nerve emerges it divides into
dorsal and ventral rami
complex network of nerves
plexus
what has no plexus
intercostal nerves
plexuses serve
motor and sensory needs of muscles, skin and limbs
four major nerve plexus are
cervical, brachial, lumbar and sacral
cervical plexus location and function
know 2
phrenic
c3-c5 serves diaphragm
greater auricular
c2-c3 skin of ear, skin over parotid gland
suprascapular
c5-c6 upper trunk, shoulder joint, supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles
femoral
l2-l4 skin of anterior and medial thight
genitofemoral
skin of scrotum in males or labia majoria in females
superior gluteal
l4-s1,motor branches to gluteus medius and minimus
inferior gluteal
motor branches to gluteus maximus, think inferior serves superior or larger muscle
cervical plexus serves
head and neck
brachial plexus serves
shoulder chest, upper back and arms, c5-c8 & t1
lumbar plexus serves
upper leg, quad, abdomen, general, l1-l4
sacral plexus serves
legs foot gluteal (some genital)
most superior boundary of spinal cord
foramen magnum
meningeal extension beyond the spinal cord terminus
filum terminale
spinal cord terminus
conus medullaris
collection of spinal nerves traveling in the vertebral canal below terminus
cauda equina
neuron type found in dorsal horn
interneuron
neuron tupe found in ventral horn
motor
neuron tupe found in dorsal root ganglion
sensory
fiber type in ventral root
motor
fiber type in dorsal root
sensory
fiber type in spinal nerve
sensory and motor
where is a lumbar puncture done
l3-l4 or l4-l5
why
it's passed the conus medullaris little risk of damage
where is the cord enlarged
cervical and lumbar region
why is the cord enlarged
nerves issue from these regions
how does position of gray & white matter differ in brain and spinal cord
in spinal cord white surrounds gray, brain is gray, white, gray
how many meninges does the spinal cord have
3, dura, arachnoid and pia mater
horns
ventral is wider than dorsal
ventral rami of spinal nerves c1 through t1 and t12 and through s4 take part in forming
plexuses
these serve
limbs and anterior trunk
ventral rami of t1-t12
run between ribs to serve intercostals
damage to dorsal root of spinal nerve
loss of sensory function
damage to ventral root of spinal nerve
loss of motor function
damage to ventral ramus of spinal nerve
loss of sensory and motor function
plexus
network of joining and diverging nerves
head neck and shoulders
cervical plexus
diaphragm
phrenic
posterior thigh
sciatic
leg and foot
fibular and plantar
anterior forearm
median and ulnar
arm muscles
radial and musculocutaneous
abdominal wall
lumbar plexus
anterior thigh
femoral
medial side of hand
ulnar
why do sympathetic and parasympathetic act as antagonists when they serve the same areas
release different neurotransmitters which bind to different
3 structures that receive sympathtic but not parasympathetic innervation
adrenal glads, arrector pili, sweat glands
reflex
rapid predictable response to stimuli
reflexes that involve skeletal muscle
somatic
in a relfex arc what transmits afferent impulses to the cns
sensory neuron
stretch reflex
tap tendon, contracts muscle
autonomic reflex
salivary
effectors of salivary reflex are
glands
relfex arc
receptor , sensory neuron , integration center, motor neuron , effector responds
somatic
abdominal, achilles, corneal, crossed exten, gag, patellar and plantar
simple stretch
achilles and patellar which are cord mediated
superficial cord
abdominal and plantar
2 somatic reflexes where higher brain participates
abdominal and plantar
what type is ciliospinal
sympathetic
ciliospinal is
stroke skin on back of neck
pupillary
parasympathetic
pupillary
pupil size decreases
salivary
parasympathetic
crossed extensor
extends opposite limb
contralateral
opposite
ipsilateral
same
autonomic
activation of smooth or cardiac muscles and glands
somatic
activation of skeletal muscles
three factors that may modify reaction time to stimulus
receptor sensitivity, nerve conduction velocity, # of neurons and synapses involved