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What are rod-shaped bacteria are called?
Bacteria are the only organisms characterized as____________________.
The earliest known group of living organisms on Earth was__________________.
Bacteria can be classified according to what three things?
What does the prefix "archea" mean?
Archaebacteria can be divided into 3 Groups. Name and describe each group.
2. Extreme Halophiles
The most numerous organisms on Earth are ________________.
Name the type of bacteria that obtain nutrients from dead organisms.
Organisms that lack a cell nucleus and membrane-bound organelles are called ______________.
Most prokaryotes are ________________organisms.
each cell can live by itself
Escherichia coli is an example of a bacterium that has short, thin, hairlike projections called __________. What is their function?
What is the function of a pili
to adhere or stick
Bacteria lack true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles so they are classified as __________.
What is the procedure called that is used to distinguish between two types of bacterial cell wall structures ?
_______________ are protective structures that some bacteria may form under harsh conditions.
Spiral- shaped bacteria are known as what?
Almost all prokaryotes are ____________________ than the smallest Eukaryotes.
Prokaryotes have ___________________ that are different from those of Eukaryotes.
What are the 2 kingdoms of bacteria and briefly describe each?
Archaebacteria- harsh conditions
Eubacteria- normal conditions
________________ is the process by which bacteria cells pick up and incorporate DNA from dead bacteria cells.
_____________ is the process of using a virus to transfer DNA from one bacterial cell to another.
When living conditions become ______________, some bacteria from special
dehydrated cells called__________________.
Bacteria that form ___________________ have an advantage for ____________________.
________________ is a type of bacteria that produces endotoxins.
Gram positive bacteria
The ____________________ are a group of bacteria that live in harsh environments.
Bacteria that take on the purple color when stained are called what?
Gram-positive bacteria cause many diseases in humans by producing ____________ which are poisons to our bodies.
Bacteria that appear pink after staining are called what?
Gram-negative bacteria have an extra layer of ________________ on the outside
of the ____________ ____________ and appear ___________ after the gram staining.
The lipid layer _______________ the purple stain from entering the cell wall.
The Archaebacteria that produce methane are called ____________________.
Archaebacteria that thrive in very salty conditions, such as the Dead Sea, are called what?
The prefix "eu" means __________________.
What is the important tool used for classifying Eubacteria called?
During Gram staining, depending on structure of their __________ ____________, the
bacteria's cell walls absorbs either the _______________ or ________________dye.
Gram-negative bacteria are distinguished by an extra layer of _________________.
______________ are Gram-negative bacteria that perform plant-like ___________________ and release oxygen as a by-product.
Organisms that obtain energy from oxidizing inorganic compound instead of sunlight are called what?
Whiplike structures used by bacteria for movements are called __________________.
Photoautotrophs are bacteria that use ______________________ as an energy source.
Bacteria can be one of three different shapes:
Gram-negative bacteria do absorb the ____________ stain during the Gram-staining process.
the extra layer of lipids also stops many _________________ from entering the bacteria.
______________________ grow in the root nodules of such plants as soybean, clover, and alfalfa.
Nitrogen fixing bacteria
Rhizobacteria fix ______________________ from the atmosphere into a form that plants
and animals can use (this greatly helps both plants and animals). They convert gaseous
nitrogen into compounds such as __________________________ (NH3).
Organisms that use oxygen during cellular respiration are called ________________. Organisms
that do not use oxygen are called __________________________. Typically they get their energy through ________________________.
Bacteria called ______________ __________________ cannot live with oxygen.
Most bacteria reproduce by a process called ____________ _______________.
Binary fission is a process in which the __________________________ replicate,
after which the ________________ divides.
Binary fission is a type of ____________________ reproduction.
Some bacteria contain smaller pieces of circular DNA called _________________.
Bacteria can exchange genes by one of three special means. Name these means.
Conjugation- bacteria to bacteria
Transformation- uptake of DNA from environment
Transduction- bacteria obtains new DNA from virus
The process of exchanging genetic material through cell to cell contact is called
Where are pili found? Do all bacteria have them?
Outside of cell wall.
Only ones that need to attach
Bacteria usually gain part of their ____________________ from their shape.
Two major differences between groups of bacteria are their source of ________________
and whether or not they use ________________ for cellular respiration.
Most bacteria act as _______________________ getting their energy by consuming (eating) organic molecules.
Some are __________________ that make their own food from ________________.
___________________ obtain their food from inorganic compound instead of sunlight.
_________________________ use sunlight for energy.
Photo autotrophic bacteria
Bacteria that can only survive in the absence of oxygen are called what?
Gram-negative bacteria appear ________________ when they undergo the Gram-stain procedure.
A type of bacteria that performs nitrogen fixation is _________________________.
Bacteria called ____________ _______________ cannot live in the presence of oxygen.
What bacteria are thought to be responsible for establishing the Earth's oxygen-rich atmosphere?
Photo autotrophic bacteria
Bacteria cells typically lack _________________________.
Bacterial disease of the intestines are usually transmitted by contaminated ____________ or ______________.
Food or water
What are the 3 mechanism of action of an antibiotic?
some prevent DNA replication
some prevent cell wall formation
some prevent protein synthesis
Bacteria that obtain their energy by removing electrons from inorganic molecules, rather than obtaining energy from the sun, are called _____________________ bacteria.
In general, organisms that obtain their energy from sunlight are called _________________.
A(n) _________________ is a substance that can be obtained from bacteria or fungi and can be used as a drug to fight pathogenic bacteria.
Many bacteria are ________________ and play an important role in recycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, while other bacteria are ___________________ and assemble organic compounds from carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and other elements.
A pathogen is an agent that is ________________________.
Bacteria cells such as E. coli transfer pieces of genetic material in a process called ____________________.
Archaebacteria that can live in extremely hot or acidic water are called _____________.
Bacteria called ________________ __________________ can use oxygen when it is available,
but do not depend on it.
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert atmospheric _________________ into _________________.
Structurally, bacteria have one of two types of _______________ _______________.
Describe the capsule of a bacterium and its function.
Lipid like membrane outside cell wall and it protects from antibiotics
Identify 3 ways that bacteria are used to produce substances for human use.
Food such as: cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese
Describe a Gram Stain
What's the point?
1. Crystal Violet
Make sure the antibiotic works right away
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