268 terms



Terms in this set (...)

Elements of texture, rhythms, melody and ___ were preserved in both African and Afro-American music despite efforts to destroy African culture.
linguistic influences
African music is characteristically ___, though African musicians do not actively conceptualize the abstract principles of their music.
polyrhythmic and polyphonic
A ___ of sound is always desirable (even on wind instruments) as is evident from the predominance of plucked string instruments as opposed to bowed strings.
percussive quality
___ are used both as a melodic and an accompanying instrument. The musical bow often appears with a resonator attached either in the middle or at the end of the bow; the mouth is often used as a resonator as well.
Vertical wooden or bamboo flutes, whistles, mirlitons (a kazoo-like instrument), transverse trumpets and horns of ivory (frequently with raised embouchures) and ocarinas are included in the ___ category of African instruments.
___ traditionally visit their patrons and lodge in each of their homes for a few days bringing their entire family with them.
The ___ popularized the spiritual at home and abroad during the era of Reconstruction in America.
Fisk Jubilee Singers
Patting juba or making juba was a form of rhythmic expression involving body rhythm as a replacement for the ___.
African drum
Before the Civil War African American children on plantations had many of their own ___.
ring-game songs
The ___ were most popular during times when racial tensions were at their zenith (1850-70).
minstrel shows
When African American people poked fun at European American people in minstrel shows or ___, they did so from the inside vantage-point stemming from having observed their subjects in their homes, churches, and places of employment.
___ is credited with starting Vaudeville for "white" audiences in 1866 in New York City.
Tony Pastor
Both "jig bands" and "jig piano" were nascent forms of the ___ that became ragtime music of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
"syncopated songs"
___ was the most prominent figure in the history of notated ragtime.
Scott Joplin
During the ___ Mardi Gras-like celebration, slit drums, 2 string fiddles, and other varieties of African instruments were played. Writers of the period leave no doubt that the flavor of the festival was uniquely African.
Drums were never outlawed on the African continent or in ___.
___ functioned as a religion for African people which enabled them to conveniently maintain their reverence to the personal lesser gods (loa ) that surrounded the supreme deity. Eventually these gods were identified with the saints of the Roman Catholic Church (in veiled form).
The mixture of women, sex, and the devil were constantly mixed in with ___.
witch propaganda
___ had been learned by African slaves on board slave ships where European crew members forced the captives to dance and exercise in order to minimize casualties.
___ - several different independent rhythms sounding at the same time.
___ - in African societies this powerful person is the music maker who serves as oral historian, a gossip spreader, etc.
African Griot
___ - square in New Orleans where Afro-Americans could sing, dance, and play percussion together.
Place Congo (Congo Square)
___ (1792-1844) had been the first African American musician to win wide acclaim domestically and in England; the first to publish sheet music; first to develop a "school" of African American musicians; he gave the first formal band concerts; was the first to tour the nation widely; and had been the first to produce a concert featuring an integrated group of musicians including European American performers.
Frank Johnson
An early blues innovator, performer, lyricist, and composer was ___, the acknowledged "Mother of the Blues."
Gertrude "Ma" Rainey
After World War I ___ were issues by major record labels to capture the African American market by selling them recordings of "black" artists.
Race Records
Geographical areas involved in presenting ___ were the places where many ragtime musicians gained their national reputations even before Tin Pan Alley assigned the label ragtime to the music.
The World's Fairs
___ (1896-1938) was a composer of rags that display remarkable craftsmanship and consistency. He met Scott Joplin in St. Louis in 1914. Joplin's influence undoubtedly enabled him to have his compositions published soon after their meeting.
James Scott
Jelly Roll Morton imposed a new level of compositional discipline upon the vitality of the ___ style of combo playing. Both of these trends would alter the direction of "jazz" throughout America. Morton introduced the three to one ratio between notes for rhythmic patterns (the quasi-12/8 feeling) and developed it in his ragtime band.
New Orleans
___ was one of the first to employ horn-like solos in his right hand technique.
Earl "Fatha" Hines
___ is a passionate style of blues performed as faithfully as the "Negro" spiritual. Some people claim it was derived from the sound of the steam locomotive. Others say it evolved from a quickening of the blues development in the lower Mississippi River area.
Boogie woogie
___ was never a "cutesy cooed" female, but has always been independent and forceful. Her unrestricted genius and eclectic playing have made her style hard to pin down, much to her critics' frustration or chagrin. Oscar Peterson refused to play on the same bill with her if she used her trio.
Dorothy Donegan
___ was the first African American woman to make a record when her legendary vaudeville routine with celebrity Bert Williams was produced in 1919.
Mary Straine
In all aspects of her professional career - her voice, powerful bearing, timing, and ability to work with the finest jazz musicians of her day - entitled ___ to the description the "Empress of the Blues".
Bessie Smith
If the titles of his songs are a reliable indication, ___ was fond of women. The most important woman in his life was his wife, Martha Promise, whom he married in 1935. His songs were often personal or autobiographical.
Lead Belly
___- (one part - A) form where a song with the same music repeated to accompany the verses of text.
strophic form
___ - the shape of a melody. This shape can roughly indicate the directions of the notes, steps and leaps, etc. graphically.
Melodic contour
Although ___ (b. 1903 and d. 1931) was always stuck performing with highly "commercial" ensembles, he was one of the first European American soloists to develop a reputation as an improviser in "jazz." Born in Davenport, he was a self-taught musician who began piano lessons when he was five years old but was unable to learn to read music.
Bix Beiderbecke
The set of recordings that ___ made for the Library of Congress's Folklore Archives in 1938 is the most complete and important oral document of the history of African American music on record, yet the recording quality is embarrassingly poor.
Ferdinand "Jelly Roll" Morton
When Joe Oliver left the Ory-Oliver jazz band to move to Chicago, ___ was recommended for the cornet spot in the best band in town.
Louis Armstrong
The pioneering ___ was the first African American band to record frequently, and, consequently, became an influential ensemble.
Oliver's Creole Jazz Band
All of ___ professional life was spent in Chicago, except for a few years in New York City, where she worked as "house pianist" for Decca Recording studio from 1937 to 1940. The superb bands she led from 1920 onward, were frequently booked extensively, and she recorded many of her compositions (which numbered over 150) at sessions for the Okeh, Paramount, Gennett, Columbia, Black and White, and Decca labels.
Lil Hardin's
___ (b. December 18, 1897 or 98, d. December 29, 1952) Was the first important African American big band leader and arranger.
Fletcher Henderson
___ led a band that was well disciplined but more commercial than many of the other Middle-of-the-Road big bands. He placed less emphasis upon the unrestained improvising of his sidemen and more on arrangement and orchestration.
Glenn Miller
___ was the son of the conductor of the Denver Symphony Orchestra and a trained musician who played with the San Francisco Symphony in 1914. He began styling himself as presenting not mere dance music but performing symphonic jazz , a "new" art form of which he was king.
Paul Whiteman
___ lead the first significant assault on the legacy of trumpet as a jazz centerpiece and started a transition to the saxophone (from the clarinet). His musical approach would be echoed in the work of Johnny Hodges (a student), Willie Smith and Pete Brown.
Sidney Bechet
In African music natural frequency stratification put ___ on top of the drums.
female voice
African music is often directly associated with ___ adding to the multidimensional effect of the presentation.
Captives from Africa in the "New World" were allowed to develop ___ because then they were more productive when singing at work.
work songs
During enslavement, ___ became attached to communication amongst Africans in the Americas.
double entendre
Marching bands led to brass bands and eventually instrumental Ragtime bands like that of__ (1881-1919) who made African American music popular overseas.
James Reese Europe
It was not until 1920 that the struggle to convince the European American music establishment to record an African American female blues singer was successful. Okeh Records recorded 51. ___ (which artist?) 52. ____ (which piece?) and realized a success so great that the label became a rival to the larger Paramount and Columbia record industries.
Mamie Smith's; "The Crazy Blues"
Blues vocalist Bessie Smith was born in Chattanooga, Tennessee around 1895 and died in Clarksdale, Mississippi in 1937. She went on the road while still in her teens as an apprentice to ___ on the Theater Owners' Booking Association (TOBA) circuit.
Ma Rainey
___ - music educator who built a band based upon precision and discipline, who used a varied instrumentation (temple blocks, timpani, celeste, etc.), emphasis on melodies with unpredictable phrasing, and colorful solo devices (timbral contrasts, dynamic contrasts, etc.) to create a style that moved in a direction different from that of Henderson's.
Jimmie Lunceford
___ - Leader of one of the leading bands in the Midwest who trained Count Basie in the Kansas Blues style that became the foundation his development in later years (after taking over his band after his death). Developed a riff style (after Armstrong's combo riff style) and later a tradition of trading fours, and other economical devices. His band too was often poorly paid even when recording, but established the swing feel that dominated the Big Band era. He also borrowed sophisticated chord structures from popular songs.
Bennie Moten
___ - Played for silent films, accompanied Bessie Smith & Clara Smith and played with the Blue Devils before becoming a band leader. Established a comping piano style that would influence many generations of pianists. The bands renowned soloists include Ben Webster, Coleman Hawkins, Lester Young, etc.
Count Basie
___ - Became the most celebrated jazz orchestra composer/leader in the world. Moved his very steady bands (little turnover) through many developmental transformations and took the jazz orchestra into symphonic directions while always maintaining the tradition. Did not follow the riff style, but set new standards on almost all levels of the big band phenomenon (soloists = bass in melodic role).
Duke Ellington
___- Drummer whose style of driving a big band was second to none and who led one of the most significant bands in Harlem. Got his big break when Duke Ellington got him an opening at the Black Bottom Club. Found Ella Fitzgerald at the Apollo (amateur night) and hired her on the spot.
Chick Webb
___ = Durations of sound and the manners in which they are accented.
___= basic pulse of music.
___ = The regularly recurring pattern of beats, or the organized units of time by which the time-span of music is measured.
____ involves the alternation of a repeated pattern (A) with contrasting new melodies (BCD, etc.) resulting is an ABACADA formal pattern.
Rondo form
Pre-written and memorized passages of music fail to qualify as jazz, by the strictest definition, because they are missing
To improvise is to_________ and _________ simultaneously.
compose; perform
Swing is a term that primarily indicates a:
rhythmic feeling
The technique of plucking the strings of a musical instrument is termed:
Playing chords in a syncopated way underneath a soloist is called:
Most jazz is guided by:
preset accompaniment harmonies
Which is true?
Rubato means absence of a steady tempo when jazz musicians use the term
Stop-time solo breaks are when:
the band suddenly stops playing, and a soloist improvises alone
Ragtime might have been derived from the term "ragging," which meant:
syncopating the rhythms of relatively unsyncopated pieces
The African-American music called the blues is thought most comprehensively to derive from:
spirituals and field hollers
Why is the party atmosphere of New Orleans thought to have contributed significantly to the development of jazz?
It was the only source that provided lots of work for musicians
Early drummers were often restricted to playing on the ______ because recording apparatus could not handle loud percussion sounds.
The ____ was far more common than the ____ in early jazz groups.
clarinet; saxophone
Known especially for polish and swing feeling was the big band of:
Jimmie Lunceford
Which statement is false?
Ellington's group had high turnover in personnel.
The first bandleader to organize a highly effective African American musicians' union in New York near the turn of the present century was:
James Reese Europe
All of the following are characteristics of African music, except:
monophonic texture
The terms "membranophones", "chordophones", "idiophones", etc. denote
instrument classifications often used for non-western music
The opera by Scott Joplin, of which excerpts were shown in class, is named __.
In the film Harlem Hellfighters, it is shown that James Reese Europe's band __.
Were part of the infantry.
The recording of ______ playing Maple Leaf Rag is an example of freedom with form and interpretation, whereas the piano roll recording adheres more closely to the written sheet music.
Eubie Blake
In the film Jazz Women ______ is shown performing Woman's No Fool with a piano player whose identity remains unknown, because he is only shown from behind.
Ida Cox
In the film Jazz Women _____ performs Now Baby or Never and God Bless the Child with Count Basie accompanying her.
Billie Holiday
In the film clip featuring the song ________ Rita Rio gives a stunning tap dance performance with high heels while simultaneously conducting the ensemble.
La Cucaracha
Black piano players in speakeasies and saloons invented ragtime out of a combination of which elements?
syncopation - European piano music - African rhythms
Most European Americans in the north did not live with African Americans as in the south and got their conceptions from traveling shows. The most popular minstrels were performing when?
1840 - 1920s and 30s
_________ from Florence Alabama is known as the "Father of the Blues".
W.C. Handy
Who was the first "jazz" star of the Brass Band?
Buddy Bolden
Scott Joplin's Ragtime, Opera (1911) was ___.
___ ran the African American Music Theatre in New York just before the turn of the twentieth century.
Will M. Cooke and Bob Cole
W.C. Handy was the ____
father of the Blues
____ is credited for the invention of the bass drum pedal (1894)
Dee Dee Chandler
In 1910 James Reese Europe organized the __, a society for African Americans in the music industry.
Clef Club
The ___ was a group of African-American men who were theatrical professionals.
What are the five geographical regions involved in the development:
a. Delta (Mississippi - Alabama)
b. The Territories (Texas-Louisiana-Arkansas-Oklahoma-Missouri)
c. Southeastern seaboard (Georgia - Florida)
d. Chicago (urban)
e. Kansas City (Mid and Southwestern - urban) f. Memphis (urban)
There were a number of female country blues singers. ___ (1886-1939) was a singer in this genre, and is considered the "Mother of the Blues." Bessie Smith was her protégé. Her style had a lasting effect on the same "jazz" styles that developed towards the end of her career and began to overshadow her music in popularity.
Gertrude "Ma" Rainey
10. In the minstrel show, Traditionally, "Mr. Tambo" was tall and thin, and "Mr. Bones" short and fat. The ___ ended with a grand review of the performers called the ___ based upon the African-American cakewalk.
slapstick comedy; "walk around,"
What was the name of the Children's game song that Kerrigan Black sang?
All Hid
Who was the most famous and most talented African-American black-faced minstrel who wrote the song, "Nothin. Doing?
Bert Williams
Who was the song writing team wrote the African-American musical, "Shuffling Along?"
Eubie Blake and Noble Sissle
Who was the most famous ragtime composer?
Scott Joplin
Who was the "Father of the Blues?
W.C. Handy
Who did Kerrigan Black consider one of the most renowned American composers?
Duke Ellington
Who was the jazz and rhythm and blues artist who became the progenitor of rock and roll?
Louis Jordan
Which record company became the top African-American business during its time?
What was "The Wiz?"
An African-American Musical based on "The Wizard of Oz" that had all original music.
Where did the title "Tryin' to Get Home" come from?"
From an African-American spiritual
What were the names of Armstrong's first, second, third and fourth wives?
Lucille Wilson, Alpha Smith, Lil Armstrong, Daisy Parker
What was the name of the institution in which Armstrong first led a band as a boy?
Colored Waif's Home for Boys.
Who was Armstrong's mentor?
Joe "King" Oliver
In whose riverboat band did Armstrong play?
Fate Marable
Who served as Armstrong's most influential music teacher and coach?
Lil Hardin
What important song did Armstrong record in 1923?
"Weather Bird Rag" and "Dippermouth Blues"
How did the phrasing of notes change in New York under Armstrong's influence?
He opened up the rhythmic approach to melodic improvisation.
What was the name of the composition that Armstrong recorded with Fletcher Henderson in 1924?
What were the names of the two early groups in which Armstrong helped establish a new vocabulary?
Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five and Louis Armstrong and his Hot Seven
What was the name of the song on which Armstrong first scat?
"Heebie Jeebies"
Why did Armstrong spend two years in Europe?
To escape problems with gangsters who were trying to control him.
Who (and "what") was Armstrong's manager?
Joe Glaser, an ex-gangster
What did Armstrong do in Hollywood in 1933?
Rhapsody in Black and Blue (film)
Early 1932, Fort Lee, New Jersey
I'll Be Glad When You're Dead, You Rascal You (film)
Early 1932, Fort Lee, New Jersey
What popular song did Armstrong perform that characterized the image many bebop musicians held of him?
"Sleepy Time Down South"
What kind of social tool did some younger musicians consider Armstrong to be?
A tool of the establishment
Who was Armstrong's bassist for many years?
Arvell Shaw
What was the name of the band in which Armstrong's later "set off his art?"
The All Stars
What, in the film's view, was the most notable characteristic of Armstrong's career?
His world tour with the Ambassadors of Jazz
What is a Swiss Chris?
A laxative and herbal remedy
In what year did Armstrong travel to Ghana?
In what racist incident was a Little Rock, Arkansas governor involved and how did Armstrong respond? What was the governor's name?
Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas denied nine black students entrance into a public school where they were trying, for the first time, to desegregate a major Southern high school. Armstrong protested
How did Sammy Davis, Jr. feel about Louis Armstrong?
Called him an "Uncle Tom"
Mingus was most important as __
Eric Dolphy was known as a __
musician who played several woodwinds
Jimmy Blanton AND Duke Ellington were major influences in the music of __
Charles Mingus
The earliest important recordings made of Mingus compositions occurred during the
Which technique is not prominently associated with the music of Mingus?
percussion ensembles
Horace Silver's most common instrumentation was __
tenor sax, trumpet, piano, bass and drums
Those few hard bop pieces to win popular recognition tended to be characterized by _
funky, catchy melodies
What do you notice about the musical interaction between the performers in Coltrane's band?
They are always aware of what everyone in the ensemble is doing.
How does drummer Elvin Jones describe the manner in which Coltrane communicated as a leader with the members of his ensemble?
Almost telepathic
3What happened to the ensemble's musical style when Eric Dolphy joined the band?
A whole new musical dimension opened up in the band.
Was Coltrane aware the passage of time and conscious of his surrounding environment when he performed?
How did Miles Davis suggest to Coltrane that he shorten his solos when the saxophonist said he did not know how to bring his developing musical ideas to an end?
Take the horn out of his mouth
Name 3 of the members of Coltrane's rhythm section.
Eric Dolphy, McCoy Tyner, Elvin Jones
How would you characterize the style of Coltrane's composition "Impressions"?
Elvin Jones tells us that what happened during one of the ensemble's performances at a particular matinee he describes?
Coltrane played one piece for the entire 3 hours.
At the end of the film Elvin also confides that he felt so strongly about his association with Coltrane that he felt the saxophonist was an __.
When asked to define jazz music, _____ once said, "Man, if you gotta ask, you'll never know."
Louis Armstrong
____- 19th-century Barrelhouse music is a soulful blend of African-American ragtime jazz and European-American traditional folk music. It is music that has been rarely written for profit but rather for purpose and appreciation. The fiddle was the first lead jazz instrument.
___ evolved as African-American musicians moved from rural environments into urban areas after 1865 - discovering that life was still very tough in a racist society.
__- This style also had an important influence on the development of jazz. __ songs are a part of a vocal tradition that continued to express the emotions of the African Americans of the early 20th century. Usually blues vocalists sang with the instrumental accompaniment of guitar, piano, and harmonica. Important __ musicians of the early twentieth century include Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith, and W.C. Handy.
__ - The origins of Early Jazz: Rhythms brought from a musical heritage in Africa were incorporated into Cakewalks, Coon Songs and the music of "Jig Bands" which eventually evolved into Ragtime, c.1895 (timeline). The music, vitalized by the opposing rhythms common to African dance, was vibrant, enthusiastic and often extemporaneous.
Sometimes considered the "precursor to Jazz styles," early ___ music was improvised music set forth in marches, waltzes and other traditional song forms but the common characteristic was syncopation. Syncopated notes and rhythms became so popular with the public that sheet music publishers included the word "syncopated" in advertising. In 1899, a young pianist with European classical training - from Missouri - named Scott Joplin published the first of many ___ compositions that would come to shape the music of a nation.
___This musical style is often referred to as "Classic Jazz" - At the beginning of the 1900's, Jazz styles took the form of small band music and its origin credited to New Orleans. This musical style is sometimes mistakenly referred to as "__" but is less solo-oriented. Though African Americans and biracial people sometimes referred to as creoles performed this style, "__" is a term for white performer's revival of this style.
new orleans style classic jazz; Dixieland; dixieland
This style, or "__" originated with brass bands that performed for funerals (second loning), parties and dances in the late 1800's and early 1900's. Many of the musical instruments had been salvaged from the Spanish American and Confederate Wars and included the ensembles included the clarinet, saxophone, cornet, trombone, tuba, banjo, bass, guitar, drums and occasionally a piano. Musical arrangements varied considerably from performance to performance and many of the solos embellished the melody with ornaments of Jazz improvisation. This lively new music combined syncopations of ragtime with adaptations of popular melodies, hymns, marches, work songs and the Blues. The mid 1990's saw a strong resurgence in the Classic form.
Classic Jazz
This is also referred to as 'traditional. It was created in the early 1920s, when the traditions of blues, ragtime, and brass band were integrated into one musical piece. Common instruments in a __ jazz-style group included trumpet-cornet, clarinet, trombone, and occasionally the saxophone. The rhythm section could include the banjo, piano, drums, string bass, or tuba. ___ was usually performed without a vocalist. Well-known __ musicians include bandleader Joe "King" Oliver, trumpeter Louis Armstrong, pianist Jelly Roll Morton, and trumpeter Bix Beiterbecke. The wordless vocals called "Scat" and the Roaring 20's hipster style evolved out of this century.
New Orleans
__- c.1925 Louis Armstrong recorded the first of his Hot Five band records, the first time he recorded under his own name. The records made by Louis Armstrong's Hot Five and Hot Seven bands are considered to be absolute Jazz classics and speak of Armstrong's creative powers. The bands never played live, but continued recording until 1928.
Hot Jazz
Collective improvised solos characterized the music, around melodic structure, that ideally built up to an emotional and "Hot" climax. The rhythm section, usually drums, bass, banjo or guitar supported this crescendo, many times in the style of march tempo. Soon, larger bands and orchestras began to emulate that energy, especially with the advance of record technology, that spread the "__" new sound across the country.
Chicago was the breeding ground for many young, inventive players. Characterized by harmonic, innovative arrangements and a high technical ability of the players, __ Jazz significantly furthered the improvised music of it's day. Contributions from dynamic European-American players like Benny Goodman, Bud Freeman and Eddie Condon along with the creative grooves of Gene Krupa, helped to pioneer Jazz music from it's infancy and inspire those who followed.
Chicago Style
The 1930s belonged to __. During that classic era, most of the Jazz groups were Big Bands. Big Band - This style became popular in the 1920s, following the rise of New Orleans Jazz. Big band jazz was performed in an ensemble consisting of 10 or more players, using such instruments as saxophones, trumpets, piano, drums, guitar, and bass. These jazz instruments worked together to create "swing" music—a high energy style that encouraged jazz fans to dance well into the 1940s.
Popular big band jazz musicians included Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Benny Goodman, and Paul Whiteman. Derived from New Orleans Jazz style, __ was robust and invigorating. ___ was also dance music, which served as it's immediate connection to the people. Although it was a collective sound, __ also offered individual musicians a chance to improvise melodic, thematic solos that could at times be very complex.
The mid 1990's saw a revival of ___ music fueled by the retro trends in dance. Once again young couples across America and Europe jitter-bugged to the swing'n sounds of Big Band music, often played by much smaller ensembles.
__- During the Depression and Prohibition eras, the ___ scene thrived as a mecca for the modern sounds of late 1920s and 30s. Characterized by soulful and blusey styling of Big Band and small ensemble Swing, arrangements often showcased highly energetic solos played to "speakeasy" audiences. Jay McShan, Benny Moten, Counnt Basie, and Charlie Parker hailed from Kansas City.
Kansas City Style
__- Originated by French guitarist Django Reinhardt, this style is an unlikely mix of 1930s American swing, French dance hall "musette" and the folk strains of Eastern Europe. Also known as Jazz Manouche, it has a languid, seductive feel characterized by quirky cadences and driving rhythms.
Gypsy Jazz
The main instruments are nylon stringed guitars, often amounting to a half-dozen ensemble, with occasional violins and bass violin. Solos pass from one player to another as the other guitars assume the rhythm. While primarily a nostalgic style set in European bars and small venues, __ is appreciated worldwide.
Gypsy Jazz
__- Developed in the early 1940's, _ had established itself as vogue by 1945. It's main innovators were alto saxophonist Charlie Parker and trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie. Until then, Jazz improvisation was derived from the melodic line. __ soloists engaged in chordal improvisation, often avoiding the melody altogether after the first chorus. Usually under seven pieces, the soloist was free to explore improvised possibilities as long as they fit into the chord structure.
__ emerged following the popularity of big band. __ was very different to the style of its predecessor, however, seeing as it consisted of a small group of players (usually 4 to 6 musicians). ___ was characterized by complex melodies and chord progressions, and was unsuitable for dancing. It also developed a style of singing called "scat," where nonsense syllables are sung to an improvised melody. The development of this style is largely attributed to saxophonist Charlie Parker and trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie.
Differing greatly from Swing, __ divorced itself early-on from dance music, establishing itself as art form but severing its potential commercial value. Ironically, what was once thought of as a radical Jazz style, __ has become the basis for all the innovations that followed.
__ - The art of composing a lyric and singing it in the same manner as the recorded instrumental solos. Coined by Jazz critic Leonard Feather, __ reached its highest point from 1957-62. Performers may solo or sing in ensemble, supported by small group or orchestra. Bop in nature, __ rarely ventured into other Jazz styles and never brought commercial success to it's performers until recent years. Among those known for writing and performing __ lyric are Eddie Jefferson and Jon Hendricks.
__- After the end of the Big Band era, as these large ensembles broke into smaller groups, Swing music continued to be played. Some of __'s finest players could be heard at their best in jam sessions of the 1950s where chordal improvisation now would take significance over melodic embellishment.
Mainstream; Swing
Re-emerging as a loose Jazz style in the late '70s and '80s, ___ picked up influences from Cool, Classic and Hardbop. The terms Modern __ or Post Bop are used for almost any Jazz style that cannot be closely associated with historical styles of Jazz music.
__ - Evolving directly from Bop in the late 1940's and 1950's, _'s smoothed out mixture of Bop and Swing tones were again harmonic and dynamics were now softened. The ensemble arrangement had regained importance. Nicknamed "West Coast Jazz" because of the many innovations coming from Los Angeles, __ became nation wide by the end of the 1950's, with significant contributions from East Coast musicians and composers.
__- An extension of Bebop that was somewhat interrupted by the Cool sounds of West Coast Jazz, __ melodies tend to be more "soulful" than Bebop, borrowing at times from Rhythm & Blues and even Gospel themes. The rhythm section is sophisticated and more diverse than the Bop of the 1940's. Pianist Horace Silver is known for his __ innovations.
Hard bop
__- A blend of West Coast Cool, European classical harmonies and seductive Brazilian samba rhythms, _ or more correctly "Brazilian Jazz", reached the United States c.1962 (timeline). The subtle but hypnotic acoustic guitar rhythms accent simple melodies sung in either (or both) Portuguese or English. Pioneered by Brazilians' Joao Gilberto and Antonio Carlos Jobim, this alternative to the 60's Hard Bop and Free Jazz styles, gained popular exposure by West Coast players like guitarist Charlie Byrd & saxophonist Stan Getz.
Bossa Nova
__ - As smaller ensemble soloists became increasingly hungry for new improvisational directives, some players sought to venture beyond Western adaptation of major and minor scales. Drawing from medieval church modes, which used altered intervals between common tones, players found new inspiration. Soloists could now free themselves from the restrictions of dominant keys and shift the tonal centers to form new harmonics within their playing. This became especially useful with pianists and guitarists, as well as trumpet and sax players. Pianist Bill Evans is noted for his approach to __.
__- Sometimes referred to as "Avante Garde", true __ soloists shed even the ensemble arrangement structure, giving for a totally "free" impulse experience to the music. If Ornette Coleman was considered the prophet of __, then John Coltrane would surely be it's leading disciple.
Free Jazz
This radical departure from past styles invited much debate about whether it would even qualify as music and soon found its place in the Jazz underground. Ironically, the much ignored __ continues to influence the Mainstream today.
free jazz style
The term __ was used to categorize the new direction jazz music was taking in the 1960s. __was an experimental and unique form of jazz where players manipulated rhythm, pitch, form and tone quality to produce unpredictable approaches, extended techniques, and wailing sounds. This new form of jazz was not widely accepted by public audiences. Some of the major jazz musicians associated with this style of music were Ornette Coleman, Albert Ayler, Sun Ra, and Cecil Taylor.
free jazz
Derived from Hardbop, __ is perhaps the most popular Jazz style of the 1960's. Improvising to chord progressions as with Bop, the soloist strives to create an exciting performance. The ensemble of musicians concentrates on a rhythmic groove centered around a strong but varied bassline.
soul jazz
Horace Silver had a large influence of style by infusing funky and often Gospel drawn piano vamps into his compositions. The Hammond organ also gained mass attention as the flagship instrument of __.
soul jazz
An off-shoot of Soul Jazz, __ draws its tones from the blues and focuses mainly on the rhythm. Sometimes referred to as "Funk" it concentrates on maintaining the continuous rhythm "hook" complimented lightly by instrumental and sometimes lyrical ornaments.
__ is full of joyous emotions inviting listeners to dance, whether in bluesy slow vamps or up-beat. Improvised solos are kept subordinate to the beat and the collective sound.
By the early 1970's, the term "__" had come to identity a mixture of Jazz improvisation with the energy and new rhythms of Rock music. To the dismay of many Jazz purists, some of Jazz most significant innovators crossed over from the contemporary Hardbop into __. Eventually commercial influences succeeded in undermining its original innovations. While it is arguable that this __ benefitted the evolution of Rock, few of its influences remain in today's Jazz.
__- also known as Latin Jazz, is a combination of Jazz improvising and highly infectious rhythms. It can be traced to trumpeter-arranger Mario Bauza, percussionists Chano Pozo and Willie Bobo (Chano Pozo had a significant influence on Dizzy Gillespie, among others) in the mid 1940s. Evolving from it's early Bop centered roots, __ has become a true fusion between North, South and Central America.
afro-cuban jazz
Instrumentation can vary widely but typically centered around the rhythm section consisting of conga, timbale, bongo and other Latin percussion, with piano, guitar or vibes and joined often by horns and vocals. Arturo Sandoval, Pancho Sanchez and Chucho Valdes are well known __ artists.
afro-cuban jazz
The terms Modern Mainstream or __ are used for almost any style that cannot be closely associated with historical types of Jazz music. Starting in 1979, a new emergence of players hit the scene (Young Lions) with a fresh approach to the Hard Bop of the 1960s, but rather than take it into the Groove and Funk rhythms that had evolved a generation before, these "young lions" added the textures and influences of the 1980s and 90s. Elements of Avant-Garde offer soloists new exploratory directions while polyrhythmic beats from Caribbean influences lend a wider diversity than previous Bop music.
Post bop
The term __ is loosely used to cover a wide range of music. Although it is certainly not a true style of Jazz music that has evolved from traditional stems, it is too significant to ignore as a member of the genre.
acid jazz
Originating in the 1987 British dance scene, it defined a funky music style which incorporated sampled classic Jazz tracks, 70s Funk, Hip-Hop, Soul and Latin grooves, with the main focus on instrumental music and not the lyric. The resulting mosaic usually ignored improvisation giving argument to whether __ is, in fact, Jazz.
acid jazz
High tech layering of synthesizers and rhythm tracks give it unobtrusive and slick packaging, where the ensemble sound matters more than individual expression. This also separates this style from other more "live" performances. Instruments include electric keyboards, alto or soprano sax, guitar, bass guitar and percussion. __ has perhaps become the most commercially viable form of all Jazz styles since Swing.
__ ("Nerd Jazz," Elevator Jazz," etc.) - Evolving from Fusion, but leaving behind the energetic solos and dynamic crescendos, __ emphasizes its polished side. Improvisation is also largely ignored giving argument whether the term "Jazz" can truly apply.
Taking the music out of the African American neighborhood during the Bebop Era accomplished all EXCEPT which of the following: ___?
Produced a greater number of African American record labels.
During the Bebop Era, some European-American businessmen, musicians and their supporters resurrected ___ or generally aimed toward improvisational formats that were less demanding musically (West Coast Cool).
Features of Modern and Contemporary Jazz also involved the free incorporation of any __ into music - thus dissolving barriers between musics from around the world
Western or non-Western musical resources
Features of Modern and Contemporary Jazz incorporated new formal conceptions that were __, as it involved new approaches to stop time, repetition, texture, melody (disjunct, motivic emphasis, etc.).
less predictable
__, Mary Lou Williams and Melba Liston did not receive credit for some of the music they composed for well-known swing era bandleaders.
As a result of sexism
__ were used to control or ostracize bebop musicians when African American music moved into integrated venues after World War II.
Cabaret cards and narcotics
Mary Lou Williams had a radio show in 1945 and premiered an orchestrated version of __ at Carnegie Hall.
The Zodiac Suite
Thelonious Monk, Dizzy Gillespie, and other bebop musicians hung out at __ apartment during the 1940 and 50s.
Mary Lou Williams's
After developing the amplified guitar as a lead (linear) solo instrument, __ died of tuberculosis during his early twenties.
Charlie Christian
Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie and Sarah Vaughan performed and experimented with __ orchestra before bop.
Billy Eckstein's
Although both of these musicians had different fates, ___ each suffered breakdowns as a consequence of debilitating social pressure.
Bud Powell and Lester Young
Bassists begin to move away from the 2-beat stride-derived pattern of early "jazz" to a
more lyrical and flexible 4-beat bass approach as swing evolved. This direction was expanded by bebop bassists such as ___.
Charles Mingus
The free "jazz" styles of _, Albert Ayler, John Coltrane, and others reflect the Afrocentric tendencies of freedom also expressed in voodoo ritual.
Ornette Coleman
__ popularized the use of multiphonics and harmonics during the mid-to-late 1950s, after performing with Thelonious Monk.
John Coltrane
Forced to move downtown in New York, to work in European American clubs, some players began to _ and separate themselves (by turning their backs on audiences,. . . etc.) from their audiences of whom they felt to be racists and exploitative.
cover their hands with handkerchiefs
__ and other European American innovators were moved by a search for individual freedom of expression as well, as the experimental styles of the 1940s evolved spontaneously through a greater emphasis on individual improvisation.
Lennie Tristano
Vocalists at times have had significant influence on instrumental phrasing. Bessie Smith codified the Classic blues style in the 1920s; Billie Holiday contributed to the development of swing and ballad styles during the 1930s; and _ made some of the complexities of bebop accessible to large audiences around the world, through their voices alone.
Ella Fitzgerald
The sight of a woman instrumentalist began to become a rare one in "jazz" after World War II. _ was one of the few women (who was not a pianist or vocalist) to maintain a firm position among the professional wind players on the scene.
Melba Liston
A glance back at the Arthur Davis and Earl Madison suit against Leonard Bernstein and the __ reminds us of some unexpected dilemmas that come about in American music.
New York Philharmonic
Bebop ushered in major alterations to rhythm, melody, and harmony, while big band innovators such as ___, pushed swing band tradition in new directions.
Earl Hines, Billy Eckstine, and Dizzy Gillespie
The War Department's ban on _______ created devastating financial consequences for artists.
records and the musicians' strike
"Cool" and __ began to take place in recording studios almost as often as in live concerts.
third stream jazz
In 1958, __ (writer and producer) coined the term mainstream to refer to several musicians whom he recorded on the Felsted record label, which British Decca established between 1958 and 1959. Most of these musicians were those favored among "jazz" historians and shared a common background in the swing era style of "jazz". Dicky Wells, Rex Stewart, Buster Bailey, Budd Johnson, Coleman Hawkins, and Buddy Tate, were some of the featured artists.
Stanley Dance
_ and other masters have reminded us that if one has to ask what it is they will never know (the answer). Musicians during the 1960s knew there were countless ways to "swing."
Count Basie
By the 1960s, a number of African American musicians had decided to challenge tradition in search of new modes of expression. Few European American "jazz" musicians became a part of this movement. The experiments of Ornette Coleman, Charles Mingus, and Cecil Taylor, were among some of the earlier ventures that pursued greater degrees of musical freedom during the fifties. Improvising Artists Collectives such as the ___ established new schools for the revolutionary music. Albert Ayler, Eric Dolphy (sometimes referred to as the "Father of the New School"), The Art Ensemble of Chicago, and other innovators, were also concerned with the liberation of sound and spontaneous composition.
The heightened complexities of bebop
forced __ out of traditional time-keeping roles into more dramatic techniques. The typical rhythm section generally had little opportunity to solo as sidemen in big bands during the wing period. During bebop, tunes were often arranged to allow each combo member to solo.
There was a reliance upon __ in free "jazz" that can be traced back to early styles of New Orleans Dixieland "jazz."
collective improvisation
Miles Davis explored "cool", "quasi-modal" music and various fusions while Cannonball Adderley and Horace Silver explored a ___ style and approaches to quartal harmony.
"funky" jazz
__ performed with Mongo Santamaria, Willie Bobo, Herbie Mann, Blue Mitchell, and Stan Getz before recording his first solo album, Tones for Joan's Bones (later re-titled Inner Space). His Latin rhythms and melodies during the seventies on albums like Light as a Feather and the jazz-rock oriented Musicmagic won him a popular following.
Chick Corea
__ vocalized in combination with the bass lines he played creating a stronger presence. It also made the bass player think in a melodic fashion rather than limiting its fuction to the outlining of basic chords.
Slam Stewart
Drums came to the U.S. as components from all over the world.__ made these individual percussion instruments into the drum set in America. Baby Dodds evolved the set to a higher level in early "jazz."
Dee Dee Chandler
In bebop, __ was much faster and more complex than any other music in the Western tonal tradition. The use of clever dissonances is heightened by chord extensions and substitutions. New scales were applied to a harmonic framework that most ears had come to consider traditional.
harmonic pacing
The impact of this pianist's music on modern jazz history was enormous. The incredibly fast improvised lines and added chords tones of ___ inventive improvisations were absorbed by Charlie Parker and other early progenitors of be-bop.
Art Tatum's
___ had tutored Powell when the latter pianist was a teen. Powell's mentor's composition "In Walked Bud" is a tribute to his younger comrade. Powell premiered his tutor's composition "'Round Midnight" on a recording with Cootie Williams.
Thelonius Monk
During the bebop era vocalist __ performed four-hand piano pieces with Earl "Fatha" Hines in 1943, and in 1945 pianist Vivian Glasby played at the Rhumboogie in Chicago with The Fletcher Henderson Band for an engagement.
Sarah Vaughan
This pioneering stylist would lead a series of innovative groups, which included many illustrious innovators of the "jazz" world. Later collaborations with Gil Evans produced such albums as "Porgy and Bess" and "Sketches of Spain," expanding the "Birth of the Cool" idea into a full orchestral setting. __ 1959 album "Kind of Blue" popularized modal improvisation in the 1960's, but in his later life he turned more to electronic music, mixing in elements of rock, funk, salsa, and modal jazz into his works which set the style for fusion and jazz rock.
Miles Davis'
__ led a string of Big Bands throughout the 1940's and '50's, and was heavily influenced by Claude Thornhill, sometimes referred to as the father of the cool style big band. This band leader became one of the best known jazz arrangers ever because of his work on college campuses across America.
Stan Kenton
__ music from his last stylistic period often bore religious titles: "A Love Supreme," "Ascension," "Om," "Crescent," "The Father and the Son, and the Holy Ghost," "Ogunde," "Meditations," "Amen," "Ascension" and others. His thinking, like Sun Ra's, also focused on outer space: "Infinity," "Interstellar Space," Sun Ship," "Cosmos," "Out of This World," etc.
John Coltrane's
_ featured Louis Jordan as both a vocalist and saxophone soloist between 1936 and 1938. The "jump band" was a small swing band that developed in the late1930s and early 1950s and was later advanced by Jordan's group, the Timpani Five. It generally featured two or three soloist in front of a swinging rhythm section. It was appealing to the African American cabaret audiences because it retained the sexual and nuptial humor of the music from old "black" vaudeville shows.
Chick Webb
_ made important recordings with Miles Davis in 1954. His composition "Oleo," recorded during this period, became a "jazz" standard. After this productive musical phase, and during the height of a battle between critics over whether he or Coltrane was the "best" tenor player of the day, this innovator took the first of many long sabbaticals from public performance.
Sonny Rollins
Ornette Coleman's ___ experimentation with collective improvisation involved a significant advancement in liberating the melody from preset chord changes. Many hard bop performers aligned their melodic improvisations closely to preset chord structures, while this innovator devised a conceptual methodology that allowed musicians more autonomy. This freedom applied whether in constructing solo improvisations or in playing accompaniment.
Although this iconoclastic pianist always drew an audience, it was often not the type or size a clientele club owners desired. His unconventional style was conducive to neither selling drinks or for sexual advancements because people listened and didn't want to be disturbed. This was not background music. He did not come from the type of blues-based background that Bird, Coltrane or Ornette Coleman came from. ___ percussive music filled a musical void that had not yet been filled.
Cecil Taylor's
__ added to the musical controversy started by Taylor and Coleman, and soon influential musicians like Coltrane and Dolphy evolved in the direction of free experimentation. The atmosphere was often hostile and the musicians were ostracized from many mainstream musical venues. John Gilmore was among this leader's most loyal band member. Gilmore had been offered a position in Miles Davis's and other prestigious bands, but remained with this innovator's Arkestra through the years despite his towering status on tenor saxophone.
Sun Ra
Trombonist/arranger ___ conducted her own arrangements on Randy Weston's Uhuru Africa session and the Swahili language was used to demonstrate the beauty of African languages. The album was recorded in early1960 and was also intended to show "how the African language is also part of the African rhythms."
Melba Liston
This alto saxophonist, bass clarinetist, and flutist (like Coltrane) continued to maintain ties between his hard bop roots and his more radical experimentation. While Coltrane's stylistic development evolved gradually from traditional hard bop to a freer musical approach in a highly methodical fashion, __ continued to oscillate between the two opposing stylistic poles. He participated as co-leader in the 1960 Free Jazz recording with Ornette Coleman, then recorded with Oliver Nelson and Booker Little a year later in sessions that were decisively hard bop oriented.
Eric Dolphy
__ recorded his first album on his own Debut label as he celebrated his 39th birthday (1951). This bassist/composer was at the height of his musical development during the early part of the 1960s, then fell into obscurity. His 1959 recording of his bitterly comical composition Original Faubus Fables and his disagreement with Columbia over the sales figures for his recordings left them unable to renew their contract. The lyrics for his composition did not sit well with some listeners:
Charles Mingus
The _ was one or the first groups to place a heavy degree of emphasis on silence in "jazz." This ensembles approach helped us to realize that silence can become animated it eventually becomes apparent that music contains more than length, width, and depth.
Art Ensemble of Chicago
__ secured a job with Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers by 1969 and remained with the band until 1972. She was the only woman to play with the Messengers for a significant period of time. The innovative pianist played with saxophonist Joe Henderson's group from 1972 to 1975 and then joined saxophonist Stan Getz until 1977.
Joanne Brackeen
The __ Trio toured throughout the sixties. By the end of the decade, the harpist/composer became increasingly involved with writing and presenting musicals that dealt with African American concerns. She wrote scores, lyrics and performed with the shows, as her husband (the drummer) established an African American theater company in Detroit.
Dorothy Ashby
By the 1960s __ had made its way to New York City bringing with its rituals the music of the bata drums. Many of the "free" players were eager to incorporate these new rhythmic sounds into their universe bringing the evolution of African American music full circle, back (so to speak) to its point of origin - African music.
A small sampling of the diverse spectrum of musical styles presented during the 1970's was preserved on the limited issue of the five record set _. The record set was recorded live in 1977 and was produced by Alan Douglas and Michael Cuscuna in association with Sam Rivers. Over 60 musicians performed on the 22 performances that were released.
Wildflowers (1-5): The New York Loft Jazz Sessions
Virtuoso pianist and composer _ (b.1940), had absorbed the new experimental formulas he encountered with Miles Davis and exposed this musical influence on his album Crossings in 1972. This direction continued, and began to display a heavy funk influence on subsequent albums such as Headhunters (1973), Sextant (1973), and Thrust (1974).
Herbie Hancock
Pianist Ramsey Lewis, traditionally a hard bop style pianist, collaborated with the popular ensemble Earth, Wind & Fire in 1974 to produce a "cross-over" album entitled __.
Sun Goddess
___ was not the first to focus on the flute as a front-line jazz instrument (Wayman Carver, Herbie Mann, and others played flute exclusively earlier), but his contribution invoved taking flute technique to a new level of virtuosity that emphasize an expanded array of the inherent qualities of the instrument.
Hubert Laws
__ is a remarkable vocalist who was living in London when the American "jazz" influence strongly affected singers abroad. Her unusually wide range found a new stylistic function within a musical approach that found popularity on her 1973 album I Am a Song.
Cleo Lane
Trumpeter ___ came through the hard bop school to establish another type of fusion in the seventies with his highly successful group, the Blackbyrds.
Donald Byrd
Woodwind multi-instrumentalist and composer __ (b.1945) has been a major figure in contemporary instrumental music since the mid-70s. He took part in the experimental music of the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians, went on to resist categorization and to explore non-conventional conceptions of tone color, solo construction, and other unique ideas. His techinal proficiency extends to such rarely seen horns as the sopranino and contrabass saxes. He is a composer whose works form a bridge between jazz and the classical avant-garde idioms, and his music is becoming increasingly widespread.
Anthony Braxton
__ was formed by three saxophonists from the Black Artists Group (formed in St. Louis in 1968) who became prominent during the 1970s and a younger Bay Area born saxophonist. Oliver Lake (b. 1942), Julius Hemphill (1940-1995), and Hamiet Bluiett (b. 1940) were the members of BAG who founded the ensemble in 1976 with saxophonist David Murray (b. 1955).
The World Saxophone Quartet
What did Parker say when his friend Dizzy Gillespie was assaulted in the "Downtown" club in which they were performing?
He called the assailant a cur
What does Chan (Parker's second wife) consider "Bird's greatest triumph?"
His European tour
Under what circumstance did Parker first begin taking drugs?
His injury due to an automobile accident
Who are 3 members of Coltrane's classic rhythm section?
Tyner, Garrison, Jones
How does Elvin Jones describe the manner in which Coltrane communicated as a leader with the members of his ensemble?
How did Miles Davis suggest to Coltrane that he shorten his solos when the saxophonist said that he did not know how to end them?
Take the horn out of his mouth
According to his drummer, was Coltrane aware of his surroundings, and the passage of time, while engaged in his solos?
Yes, clearly.
How did Coltrane's ensemble change when Eric Dolphy joined the band?
A newer approach was added
The most unusual instrument on the title cut of the album album Slave Mass was the __.
_ was known for playing the melody in both hands.
Art Tatum
Nat Adderly played the ___.
The most innovative feature of Miles Davis' __ was his inverting the conventional functions of the ensemble.
So What
__ was one of many musicians who came through the Art Blakey school of music.
Cecil Taylor
Eric Dolphy played the __ on John Coltrane's "India."
bass clarinet
On the video clip shown in class, Hermeto Pascoal also played his instrument __.
at the world's fair
When the press tried to stir up controversy between Sonny Rollins and John Coltrane, __.
Coltrane and Rollins recorded together
In the film Coltrane Legacy, Jones confides that his association with Coltrane was so strong that he felt that the saxophonist ___.
was an angel
John Coltrane ___ conscious of his surroundings and of the passage of time during his long solos.
was always
Charlie Parker asked his wife __ to "Free him" so that he could become a great musician.
__ plays guitar, vocals, harmonic copper pipe, electric fan & percussion on her album.
Badi Assad
Sun Ra makes much out of exploration of ___
simultaneous collective improvisation