16 terms

Viruses and Microscopes

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virus
A microscopic particle that is usually composed of a nucleic acid core (DNA or RNA - never both), and a capsid. It is a pathogen.
nucleic acid
A molecule made up of nucleotides (sugar, phosphate and nitrogen base). Ex) DNA or RNA
viral envelope
A lipid (fat) layer that surround the capsid adding an additional layer of protection.
host range
The number of different species a virus can infect. Narrow host range means the virus can infect 1-3 different species. A broad host range means the virus can infect 4 or more different viruses.
retrovirus
A virus that follows the lysogenic pathway; has RNA as its nucleic acid; and infects mainly animals
immune system
A system that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response
interferons
A chemical released from infected cells that makes ist harder for a virus to infect another cell by interfering with viral replication within cells
pathogen
Anything that causes a disease ex) bacteria, fungus, protist, worm, virus etc..
bacteriophage
A virus that infects bacteria; also called a "phage"
prophage
When the host cells DNA and the viral DNA becomes one single strand. Occurs in the lysogenic cycle
vaccine
A weakened, diluted or dead form of a virus that is injected into the body to produce immunity
virulent
How quickly a virus can reproduce and spread from host to host. The more virulent it is the faster it can reproduce
antigen
A marker on the outside of the cell that stimulates the production of antibodies. Identifies whether the cell belongs in the body or not
antibody
A protein madeby lymphocytes in response to a specific antigen that can attach to the antigen and cause it to be useless
lysis
Bursting open of the cell
lymphocyte
A type of white blood cell that produces antibodies that help destroy pathogens