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Logical Fallacies Quiz Williams
Terms in this set (21)
Ad baculum (Scare tactics)
An appeal to force
Example: Anyone who doesn't agree with the boss will be terminated.
Faulty dilemma; presents two choices when there are three or more in reality
Example: Do you want to go to college or do you want to dig ditches all your life?
One action will initiate a chain of events leading to an undesirable event later.
Example: Direct TV Commercials
Ad misericordiam (sentimental appeals)
An appeal for sympathy, i.e.,.
Example: I stole the money because I'm out of work and my wife needs an operation.
Ad populum (bandwagon)
An appeal to a crowd, i.e.,.
Example: Fifty million Elvis fans can't be wrong.
Ad antiquitatem (appeal to tradition)
The "it's always been done this way" argument.
Example: The state constitution was good enough for my grandfather. We're not changing it.
Ad vericundiam (Appeal to authority)(Also consider the appeal to false authority)
Appeal to authority
Example: My teacher says.... The Bible says....
Writer assumes that a particular position is the only one that is conceivably acceptable within a community; the truth is self-evident.
Ad hominem (Argument of the man)
Attacking character rather than issue.
Example: Smith just got a divorce so he should not be elected. OR Smith sings in the church choir, so he should be elected.
Drawing a conclusion based on too little evidence.
Example: Tall men like ice cream.
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc (Faulty Causality)
Literally translated, "After this, because of this." This approach attempts to prove that because a second event followed a first, it was the result of the first.
Example: Every time the Republicans are in office, we have a recession and wind up at war.
Another example: the current Bud Light commercials "It's Not Crazy If It Works"
Begging the question
Assuming something to be true that really needs proof. Example: You can't give me a C in this course—I'm an A student.
Equivocation (Juvenile tricks of language)
Using the same term with different meanings; taking advantage of an ambiguity.
Example: A student who copied a paper from the Internet says, "I wrote this paper myself," thereby taking advantage of the double meaning of "wrote."
An argument in which claims, reasons, or warrants fail to connect logically; literally translated, "it does not follow." Example: Tom does not drink or smoke, so he would make a great husband.
Attacking an argument that isn't really there.
Wrongful comparison of dissimilar situations.
Example: Doctors use x-rays in exams, so students should be able to use textbooks in exams.
A premise is true because it has not been proven false Example: A thousand ton piece of metal could never float. Therefore, ships need to be made of wood.
Arguing that the whole group must have the same characteristics as its members.
Example: Each player on the team is the best in the state at her position, so the team is the best in the state.
Arguing that each individual has the characteristics of the group.
Example: If the team is the best in the state, each player must be the best at her position.
Guilt by association
Assumes similarities among comrades.
Example: Max hangs out with people who were drunk at the prom. He must be a drinker.
Asking a question in a way that leads to a particular answer Example: How much longer must our people endure this injustice?
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