38 terms

Kingdom Monera and Protista

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taxonomy
A way of grouping organisms based on characteristics they have in common
prokaryote
A cell that does NOT have a nucleus nor membrane bound organelles. Kingdom Monera only
heterotroph
An organism that cannot make its own food. It must eat or consume food.
autotroph
An organism that CAN make its own food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
binary fission
A type of asexual reproduction that all bacteria do. There are 3 main steps: the DNA must double; then the cell elongates and a cross-wall forms; and finally the cell divides in two.
conjugation
A type of sexual reproduction that some bacteria do such as E. coli or Salmonella. Two bacteria come close together and a conjugation bridge forms between them. Then a plasmid (extra DNA beside the chromosome) will be transferred from donor to the recipient
endospore
When a bacterium produces a thick wall that encloses its DNA and a portion of its cytoplasm to help it survive harsh or unfavourable conditions
obligate aerobe
An organism that requires oxygen to survive.
obligate anaerobe
An organism that cannot live in the presence of oxygen - oxygen is poison to it
facultative anaerobe
An organism that prefers to live with oxygen but it can survive without oxygen
fermentation
A process where energy is released by breaking down sugars molecules without using oxygen. This produces carbon dioxide and alcohol
parasite
An organism that feeds off of other living organisms. It can live in or on its host.
saprophyte
An organism that feeds on dead organic matter ex) a fungus or bacterium
decomposer
An organism that gets energy by breaking down the remains of dead organisms or animal wastes and consuming or absorbing the nutrients
symbiosis
A relationship where two different organisms live in close association with each other
photosynthesis
A process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
chemosynthesis
A process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
aerobic respiration
The process by which cells use oxygen to obtain usable energy from glucose
pathogen
Anything that can cause a disease
nitrogen fixation
The process by which certain bacteria convert nitrogen gas (in the air) into ammonia
antibiotics
A chemical that will inactivate a protein in the wall of bacteria so it is destroyed,; chemicals that inhibit the growth of or kill bacteria.
asexual reproduction
A type of reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
sexual reproduction
A type of reproduction involving the exchange of DNA between two members of the same species
filament
A chain of cells
eukaryote
A cell that contains a true nucleus and membrane bound organelles
phytoplankton
Plant-like protists that photosynthesize (autotrophs) and supply oxygen to the earth
zooplankton
Animal-like protists that are heterotrophs, respond to stimuli, and are an important food source
contractile vacuole
An organelle that collects excess water in the organism and gets rid of water from the organism
food vacuole
An organelle in the cytoplasm of protists that temporaily store and digest foods
eyespot
An organelle of the protist euglena that is able to detect light so it can find the best source of light
trichocysts
Small harpoon like structures that are used for defense by the Paramecium
pseudopod
A "false foot" or temporary bulge of cytoplasm used for feeding and movement in the Amoeba
ectoplasm
Rigid outer part of the cytoplasm
endoplasm
The inner part of the cytoplasm that is more fluid and moves more freely
phagocytosis
A process in which extensions of cytoplasm (pseudopods) surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
cytoplasmic streaming
The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cells contents.
Red Tide
A bloom of dinoflagellates that are ingested by shellfish (clams, mussels or oysters). When they are digested they release neurotoxins that are stored in the fat of shellfish. When fish or humans eat contaminated shellfish they can become ill, suffer paralysis or die from the neurotoxin
blooms
A sudden & dramatic increase in the number of organisms -