23 terms

Algae, Moss and Ferns

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isogamy
Gametes are the same size and structure. Different gametes are indicated by a + and a - sign
heterogamy
Gametes are a different size and structure. The larger gamete is called the egg and the smaller gamete is called the sperm.
haploid
Cell that has one set of chromosomes or half the number of chromosomes
diploid
Cell that has the complete number of chromosomes or two sets of chomosomes
sporophyte
In plants, it is diploid and produces spores by meiosis.
gametophyte
In plants, it is haploid and produces gametes
cuticle
A thick waxy covering produced by the epidermis that prevents the plant from drying out
leaves
A vascular plant structure that is responsible for photosynthesis - creating food for the plant
roots
A vascular plant structure that absorbs water and minerals from the ground for photosynthesis. Anchors plant in ground.
stem
A vascular plant structure that supports the plant and connects the roots and leaves. The stem carries water and nutrients to the leaves and raises the leaves up to collect sunlight
vascular system
A system formed by xylem and phloem throughout a vascular plant, serving as a transport system for water and nutrients, respectively.
xylem
The vascular tissue that moves water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves
phloem
The vascular tissue that is responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis
stoma
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
archegonium / archegonia
A female reproductive part of a nonvascular plant that produces eggs
antheridium / antheridia
A male reproductive part of nonvascular plant that produces sperm
rhizome
The underground stem of a fern sporophyte that is anchored down by true roots
rhizoids
Root-like structures that anchor moss and the heart-shaped gametophyte of ferns
prothallus
Small, green, heart-shaped gametophyte plant form of a fern that can make its own food and is anchored by rhizoids
fiddlehead
The uncoiling sporophyte of a fern produced from the rhizome by asexual reproduction
Bryophytes
Plants that belong to the phylum Bryophyta - the lack vascular tissue
Tracheophytes
Plants that belong to the phylum Tracheophyta - they have vascular tissue
zygote
The result of the fusion of egg and sperm