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Psych chapter 12
Chapter 12 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (54)
prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself.
a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation.
the process of explaining one's own behavior and the behavior of others.
the theory of how people make attributions.
referring to the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not to help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases.
type of information processing that involves attending to the content of the message itself.
sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person's behavior does not correspond to that person's attitudes.
type of love consisting of intimacy and commitment.
changing one's behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change.
changing one's own behavior to match that of other people.
branch of psychology that studies the habits of consumers in the marketplace.
any group of people with a particular religious or philosophical set of beliefs and identity.
the lessening of personal identity, self-restraint, and the sense of personal responsibility that can occur within a group.
diffusion of responsibility
occurring when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share that responsibility.
treating people differently because of prejudice toward that social group to which they belong.
cause of behavior attributed to internal factors such as personality or character.
asking for a large commitment and being refused and then asking for a smaller commitment.
elaboration likelihood model
model of persuasion stating that people will either elaborate on the persuasive message or fail to elaborate on it and that the future actions of those who do elaborate are more predictable than those who do not.
equal status contact
contact between groups in which the groups have equal status with neither group having power over the other.
asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment.
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to overestimate the influence of internal factors in determining behavior while underestimating situational factors.
the tendency for members involved in a group discussion to take somewhat more extreme positions and suggest riskier actions when compared to the individuals who have not participated in a group discussion.
kind of thinking that occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned.
implicit personality theory
set of assumptions about how different types of people, personality traits, and actions are related to each other.
the forming of the first knowledge that a person has concerning another person.
social groups with whom a person identifies; "us."
liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person.
educational technique in which each individual is given only part of the information needed to solve a problem, causing the separate individuals to be forced to work together to find the solution.
getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment.
changing one's behavior at the command of an authority figure.
social groups with whom a person does not identify; "them."
type of information processing that involves attending to factors not involved in the message, such as the appearance of the source of the message, the length of the message, and other non content factors.
the process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation.
negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group.
socially desirable behavior that benefits others.
realistic conflict theory
theory stating that prejudice and discrimination will be increased between groups that are in conflict over a limited resource.
reciprocity of liking
tendency of people to like other people who like them in return.
type of love consisting of intimacy and passion.
the tendency of one's expectations to affect one's behavior in such a way as to make the expectations more likely to occur.
cause of behavior attributed to external factors, such as delays, the action of others, or some other aspect of the situation.
the assignment of a person one has just met to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with the other people with whom one has had experience in the past.
the mental processes that people use to make sense of the social world around them.
social cognitive theory
referring to the use of cognitive processes in relation to understanding the social world.
the comparison of oneself to others in ways that raise one's self-esteem.
the tendency for the presence of other people to have a positive impact on the performance of an easy task.
the part of the self-concept including one's view of self as a member of a particular social category.
social identity theory
theory in which the formation of a person's identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison.
the tendency for the presence of other people to have a negative impact on the performance of a difficult task.
the process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual.
the tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working with others on that task.
the study of the relationship between biological systems and social processes and behavior.
the scientific study of how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior influence and are influenced by social groups; area of psychology in which psychologists focus on how human behavior is affected by the presence of other people.
the pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position.
the effect that people's awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior.
Recommended textbook explanations
Richard A. Kasschau
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
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