32 terms

Gymnosperms, Angiosperms and Seeds

STUDY
PLAY
gymnosperm
A group of vascular seed plants that bear their seeds directly on the scales of cones. Means naked seeds.
angiosperm
A group of vascular seed plants that have flowers. Means enclosed seeds
pollination
The transfer of the male part (pollen grain) to the area where the female part is located
fertilization
When the egg and sperm fuse to form a zygote
monocots
Single cotyledons (embryonic seed leaf). Flower parts in 3s or multiples of 3s, vascular tissue in scattered bundles, and leaves with parallel veins.
dicots
Two cotyledons. Flower parts in fours or fives, vascular tissue in distinct bundles arranged in a circle, and leaves with net-ike veins.
megaspore
A large haploid spore formed by gymnosperms and angiosperms that develop into a female gametophyte
microspore
A small haploid spore formed by gymnosperms and angiosperms that develop into a male gametophyte
pollen tube
A passageway for the sperm to get from the pollen grain to the egg without water
xylem
A vascular tissue that carries water and nutrients upward from the roots to the leaves
phloem
A vascular tissue that carries the food made by photosynthesis to all the cells of the plant
cuticle
A waxy outer covering produced by the epidermis of leaves and stems that prevents the plant from drying out.
stoma
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
epidermis
An outer tissue layer
parenchyma
A tissue that is healing of wounds, stores water and stores the products of photosynthesis
endodermis
The innermost tissue layer
meristem tissue
An undifferentiated tissue that is capable of constantly undergoing cell division and differentiation. It is embryonic and can become anything
apical meristem tissue
Meristem tissue located at the tips of roots and shoots. It is responsible for primary growth or growth in length
lateral meristem tissue
Meristem tissue located in the outer part of roots and stems. It is responsible for secondary growth or growth in width.
primary growth
Growth produced by apical meristems, which lengthens stems and roots and is the type of growth that occurs first
secondary growth
Growth produced by lateral meristems, which widens stems and roots. It is the type of growth that occurs second.
cotyledon
A "seed leaf" which develops as a part of the seed. It provides nutrients to the developing seedling and eventually becomes the first leaf of the plant.
stamen
The male part of a flower made up of the anther, pollen and filament
anther
Part of the flower that produces the pollen grain with sperm
filament
A stalk that supports the anther and raises it up so the pollinator must brush past the anther and collect the pollen
stigma
A sticky portion of the flower located at the top of the style where pollen grains frequently land. They are sticky due to bristles or sap
style
The narrow, elongated part of the pistil between the ovary and the stigma that the pollen tube grows through. It raises the stigma up so it can catch the pollen
ovary
A structure containing egg cells located at the base of a pistil in a flower. It becomes the fruit
ovule
A structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the egg. It becomes the seeds of the plant/fruit
pistil
The female reproductive part of a flower.
sepal
The outermost circle of flower parts that encloses a bud before it opens and protects the flower while it is developing
testa
The seed coat;a protective outer layer of seeds that prevents the embryo from drying out