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Biology: Chapter 5 Test
Terms in this set (33)
Isotonic, Hypertonic, and Hypotonic
What are the 3 types of solutions?
A hypertonic solution is a solution that, When surrounding the cell, will cause the cell to lose water. A hypotonic solution is a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to take up water. And isotonic Siri she is a solution that has the same saw you concentration as another solution, does having no effect on the passage of the water in or out of the cell.
How does each solution work?
Competitive and noncompetitive
What are the 2 enzyme inhibitors?
The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
Know Plasma membrane
A transport protein in the plasma membrane of some plant or animal cells that facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane
What is aquaporin?
The passage of a substance through a specific transport protein across a biological membrane down its concentration gradient.
What is facilitated diffusion?
Competitive and noncompetitive
What are the 2 types of enzyme inhibitors?
Know ballon pictures.
The energy of motion; the energy of mass of matter that is moving. Moving matter does not work by imparting motion to other matter.
What is kinetic energy?
Energy available in molecules for release in a chemical reaction; a form of potential energy.
What is chemical energy?
Proteins that exist within the cytoplasmic membrane of a cell
What are embedded proteins?
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
What is osmosis?
Oxygen diffuses across the cell membrane in response to concentration gradients.
How does oxygen pass through the cell membrane?
Cellular eating; a type of endocytosis whereby a cell engulfs macromolecules, other cells, or particles into its cytoplasm.
What is phagocytosis?
Cellular drinking; a type of endocytosis in which the cell takes fluid and dissolves solutes into small membranous vesicles
What is pinocytosis?
A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others and blocks the passage of other substances altogether.
What is selective permeability?
The fundamental building blocks of all cell membranes are phospholipids, which are amphipathic molecules, consisting of two hydrophobic fatty acid chains linked to a phosphate containing hydrophilic head group
How do fatty acids pass through the membrane?
The part of an enzyme molecule where is substrate molecule attaches. Typically it is a pocket or groove on the enzyme's surface.
What is an active site?
The sign at which a small regulatory molecules interact with an enzyme to inhibit or activate that specific enzyme
What is an alosteric site?
Cell membrane structure and movement
What is a fluid mosaic?
What role do white blood cells play in endocytosis and exocytosis?
The transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule. Nearly all cellular work depends on ATP energizing other molecules by phosphorylation.
What is phosphorylation?
How do enzymes catalyze reactions?
Glycolysis, cellular respiration, and phosphorylation
What are some examples of metabolic pathways?
A non-protein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme.
What is a cofactor?
An organic molecule of serving as a cofactor. Coenzymes are important and metabolic reactions and an example of a coenzyme is a vitamin.
What is a coenzyme?
ATPis a molecule in the cell that allows for a quick and easy access to energy when needed by the cell's organelles. Releases energy when the chemical bonds are broken. ATP goes back to the mitochondria after delivering a phosphate.
What is ATP and how is it used?
Know the U-Tube.
The principal whereby every energy conversion reduces the order of the universe, increasing its entropy. Ordered forms of energy or at least partly converted to heat.
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
The process of moving sodium and potassium in and out of the cell
What is a sodium potassium pump?
Lack of water
What causes plants to wilt?
Know the enzyme picture from the textbook
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