CP Exam II

a social & intellectual movement that aims to ensure equal rights for women & men
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Terms in this set (130)
rights of individuals to participate in civic life ex. freedom to assemble, speech, access info, equal access to institutionscivil rightsa form/type of governmental system with an emphasis on institutions and rulesregimea regime with predominantly democratic institutions, including basic civil rights and regular, free electionsdemocratic regimesa conception of democracy that emphasizes the minimal standards, procedures, and rules that a country should have in place to govern political lifeprocedural definition of democracyconception of democracy that views a polity's democratic status as dependent on the satisfaction of certain substantive endssubstantive definition of democracyAccording to Sorensen, what 4 concepts are necessary for a democratic system?1. government systems have meaningful and non-violent competition 2. highly inclusive level of participation/voting 3. eligibility of office is inclusive and nondiscriminatory 4. high degree of civil and political libertiesany major change of regime type ex. democratization, democratic breakdown, authoritarian persistenceregime changeform of political regime, as well as subgroupsregime typethe process in which a regime becomes more democraticdemocratizationmovement from an authoritarian regime to a democratic onetransitionprocess through which a new democratic order becomes institutionalized and therefore more likely to endureconsolidationa conception of democracy in which politicians and institutions are understood to represent the electorate, who nevertheless can constrain their behavior through periodic elections and other political participationrepresentative democracya polity without a monarch in which the basic rules of politics are laid out in a constitutionconstitutional republica political system in which a monarch is the head of state, but has powers limited by a constitutionconstitutional monarchya democracy in which at least 2 parties compete for powermultiparty democracya conception of democracy that places great emphasis on direct citizen involvement in politics, especially involving plebiscite and/or citizen assemblies ex. referendum and ballot initativesdirect democracya popular vote on a specific issuereferendumthe process through which a non-democratic regime becomes democraticdemocratic transitionthe process through which, after a transition from authoritarianism, a polity strengthens its democracydemocratic consolidationa theory that traces democracy to broad social changes, especially economic changes that accompany itmodernization theoryWhat is an exception to modernization theory?India--> democratized before economic growthHow could culture prevent the spread of democracy?Asian cultural values--> stability and harmonious social relations over individual rights and allow authority and deference to the stateWhat are factors that could cause democratization?modernization, features of the international system, domestic structural features, role of individuals or groups, demonstration effects, global acceptance of democracya form of government/regime that is non-democratic; generally favorable to hierarchy and concentrated processes of decision-makingauthoritarianismHow do authoritarian regimes vary?extent to which the regime is based around an individual vs. bureaucracy, degree to which regime expounds an overarching ideology, extent to which contrains/violates human rightstransition from democratic to non-democratic governmentdemocratic breakdownthe ongoing continuation of an authoritarian regimeauthoritarian persistencea class of regimes that appear to be neither fully democratic nor fully authoritarianhybrid regimesa form of authoritarian regime that aims to control everything about the lives of its subject population--> use/threat of violence, no freedom of thought, one party, cult of personality, state-controlled economy, prison, work camps, and mass executionstotalitarian regimean authoritarian state controlled by religious leaders or a state with very religious restrictions that use religion as it main mode of legitimationtheocracya form of authoritarianism in which the personality of the dictator is highlighted ex. autocracy, despotism, or tyrannypersonalistic dictatorships ("sultanism")a type of authoritarian regime that was associated with control of the state more by a group of elites/military than a single dictator ex. Latin America, China (party dictatorship)bureaucratic-authoritarian regimeWhy do some authoritarian regimes adopt democratic features?democratic international normsa polity with some democratic features but in which political and civil rights are not all guaranteed and protectedilliberal democracya hybrid form of regime that is democratic but involves the electorate "delegating" significant authority to the government (popular in Latin America)delegative democracysituation in which authoritarian regimes nominally compete in electionselectoral authoritarianisma form of government/regime that allows for some political competition but not enough to fully qualify as democratic (not everyone can participate)competitive authoritarianismWhat are the 2 types of authoritarian persistence?1. persistence of a single authoritarian regime (Chinese Communist Party) 2. substitution of one authoritarian regime for another (Iran)How can a regime maintain its authoritarianism?economic benefits for citizens, repression of protests and informationHow do democratic breakdowns usually begin?elect an authoritarian, weak democracy, coup d'etat, revolution, predatory state gains influence of government and exploits it, shift in political cultureWhich groups are more likely to reject democracy?1. those who receive privileges under authoritarianism 2. economic actors who support state redistribution 3. individuals who fear democracy will strip them of privilegesWhat economic factors can lead to a democratic breakdown?economic collapse, increased poverty and income inequality, authoritarian regime is supported by the wealthy, unstable class conditionsaction undertaken by individuals and groups to pursue their ends in formally/informally coordinated way in pursuit of a common goalcollective actionsocial/political structure/set of practices including government organization that shapes the behavior of peopleinstitutionfundamental supreme laws, usually written in a charter, that establishes the basis of a political system and other lawsconstitutionlimitation of the government through a constitutionconstitutionalismfeatures of constitutions that shape the basic features of the political system (separation of powers, responsibilities of government, division of power)constitutional designsystem of government with constituted design of separation of powers between central government and subnational governmentfederalismsystem of government in which central government is predominant and the powers of subnational governments are limited to those delegated by the centerunitarismdivision of power between branches/different levels of governmentseparation of powerssystem of constitutional interpretation in which judges rule on the constitutionality of laws passed by the legislatures and executivejudicial reviewconstitutional system in which changes require supermajorities or approval from a fixed number of subnational units (U.S)rigid constitutionsconstitutional system in which changes require simple majority of the legislature (U.K)flexible constitutionsadd additional constitutional rights for citizensamendmentssystem in which the constitutionality of laws passed by legislature and executive are not subject to constitutional interpretation by judiciaryparliamentary sovereigntyHow does federalism impact the economy?Positive- healthy competition amongst states, positive economic peer pressure, people can choose region to live in based on economic preference negative- complicates economic performance, politicians may overspend or be fiscally irresponsibleterm used to characterize judicial actions that actively reinterpret legislation and thus imply exercising powers typically reserved for the legislative branchjudicial activismWhat important governmental features are not listed in the US Constitution?-threshold for candidacy -how bills become a law/use of committees -legislative style (trustee v. delegate)assembly/body of representatives with the authority to make lawslegislatureWhat are the roles of a legislature?-propose legislation -organize votes/presentation of legislation -control government budgets and disburse funds to executive branch -focus national discussion -train for executive branchlegislature with 2 chambers, which may have equal or unequal powerbicameral legislatureassembly/body of a legislaturechamberin bicameral legislature, has more legislators and represents the national vote either proportionally or through smaller geographic constituencieslower chamberin bicameral legislature, has smaller number of legislators and represents larger geographic constitutenciesupper chamberlegislature with 1 chamber (popular in states with small, homogenous populations)unicameral legislatureform of legislature associated with the presidential system where there is a separation of powerscongresstype of legislature associated with systems in which legislators vote on leadership of executive branch and the formation of governmentparliamentan electoral system in which voters select representatives from specific geographic constitutenciesdistrict systema group of voters/a geographic district that legislators and other elected officials representconstituencyelectoral system in which voters choose a candidate and the winner is elected by the most votes earned or winning a runoff electionsingle-member district (SMD)electoral system in which the candidate with the most votes is elected, regardless of whether there was a majorityfirst-past-the-post (pluralism)electoral system in which the top candidates after a first round of voting compete in one or more additional rounds of voting until one candidate receives a majorityrunoffelectoral system in which district constituencies have more than one representativemulti-member district (MMD)an electoral system in which voters choose a party and seats are allocated to parties according to percentage of votesproportional representationelectoral system in which voters choose a candidate but votes are aggregated by political party to determine the allocation of seats across partiesopen-list proportional voting*recreate table on p. 210*voting system in which voters rank candidates and the votes of the low-ranking candidates are reallocated until a winner is determinedalternative voteelectoral system in which voters rank candidates and the winner's surplus votes are allocated to other, lower-ranking candidates until a slate of representatives is chosensingle transferable votevoting in a way that does not reflect a voter's ideal preference, so as to prevent a less-desired outcomestrategic votingelectoral system in which representatives are chosen by other elected officials rather than directly by the citizenry at large; most voters do not cast a ballot directly for a candidateindirect electionHow does the legislature oversee the executive branch?reviews executive appointees, can impeach executive branchprocess by which elected legislators reflect the interests and preferences of voters in their constituenciesrepresentationprocess by which legislative seats are distributed among geographic constituenciesapportionmentprocess by which districts/other geographical constituencies are created for purposes of electionsdistrictingcreation of districts of irregular shape or composition in order to achieve a desired political resultgerrymanderingapportionment in which voters are unequally represented in the legislature through relatively high numbers of legislators per capita for low population areas and vice versamalapportionmentin a legislature, a body composed of a group of legislators convened to perform a certain set of taskscommitteeset of relationships between the executive and legislative branches of government (determined by formal powers of Constitution and partisan powers)executive-legislative relationsbranch of government (or individual who leads this branch) that executes/administers policies and laws in a countryexecutiveorganization of unelected officials, often considered part of the executive branch, that implements, executes, and enforces laws and policiesbureaucracyperson with executive functions who is a country's symbolic representative (elected president, unelected monarch)head of statetop executive official responsible for forming governments and formulating and implementing policieshead of governmenta chief executive in a parliamentary system of governmentprime ministeran executive leader that typically combines the function of head of state and head of government and is not directly responsible to legislaturepresidenta head of state in a monarchy, who usually inherits a position for life and may have either substantial political powers or very limited ceremonial powersmonarch(in context of executives) the set of top-elected executive officials and high-level political appointees that shape and orient policygovernmentbureaucracy of state officials that executes policyadministrationa system of government in which a president serves as chief executive, being independent of the legislature and combining functions of head of government and statepresidentialismelectoral system in which voters cast a vote directly for head of government or statedirect electionsystem of government in which the head of government is elected by and accountable to a parliament/legislatureparliamentary systema hybrid system combining aspects of presidentialism and parliamentarism (France)semi-presidential systempowers possessed by a political actor as a function of their constitutional/legal positionformal powersan act of executive power in which an executive rejects a law passed by the legislaturevetochief executive disbanding the legislature, often accompanied by a call for new electionsdissolving the legislaturean executive made order that has the force of law, despite not being passed by the legislaturedecreedecree that determines how the bureaucracy should enact/interpret the lawexecutive ordercondition allowed by some constitutions that guarantees rights/provisions are temporarily limited, as justified during an emergencystate of emergencyrestriction on the number of times/total amount of time a political official can serve in a given positionterm limita process by which a legislature initiates proceedings to determine whether an official, often an executive, should be removed from officeimpeachmentvote taken by the legislature that expresses a lack of support for the government/executive which may result in dissolution of the government and new call for electionsvote of no confidencepowers accruing to government officials by virtue of the official's leverage/power of a political partypartisan powersa group of 2 or more political parties that governs by sharing executive power and responsibilitycoalitionsgroup of senior officials in executive branch who advise the head of government/statecabinetthe set of duties and tasks that correspond to a given ministerial officeportfoliopowers possessed by an office holder that are not official but rather based on custom, convention, or other source of influenceinformal powersuse of government favors (usually in form of employment opportunities) to garner political supportpatronagepractice of exchanging political favors for political supportclientelismWhat are the benefits of a presidential and parliamentary system?prez--> identify clearly with candidate, more choices, split ticket, 1 party in cabinet parliamentary--> more compromise/sharing, multiparties, easier to removepolitical approach in which leaders seek to develop direct political ties to the massespopulismsystems that use formal mechanisms to coordinate different groups sharing access to powerconsociational