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Which photoreceptors respond to very dim light?


The _____ focuses light on the retina.

fovea centralis

contains only cones, provides detailed color vision.


consists of a pigmented layer and a neural layer.


Which structure in the eye provides nutrition to all eye layers?


night blindness


The major function of the _____________ is to produce mucus to prevent the eyes from drying out

vitreous humor

supports the posterior surface of the lens.

cristae ampullares

Receptors for dynamic equilibrium are called ________ ___________. They are located in the semicircular canals of the ear, and they respond to head movements. They respond to rotation forces to monitor the position of the head.

olfactory receptor cells

They have a short life span of about 60 days. They are ciliated. They are chemoreceptors.

the auditory cortex is stimulated.

The final step in perceiving sound is:


The receptor for static equilibrium is the ________.


Concerning equilibrium, __________ respond to angular acceleration and deceleration.


________________ is a "hardening of the ear"; it decreases the ability of the ossicles of the ear to transmit vibrations.


Ringing in the ears is called:


____________ syndrome affects all three parts of the inner ear. It is characterized by tinnitus, vertigo, nausea, and vomiting.

otitis externa

inflammation of the outer ear.

outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane

As sound levels increase in the spiral organ (of Corti), . . .

The tastant must contact the basal cells of the taste buds.

Which of the following is not a requirement for something to be tasted?
-The tastant must dissolve in saliva.
-The tastant must diffuse into a taste pore.
-The tastant must contact gustatory hairs.
-The tastant must contact the basal cells of the taste buds.

brain stem

Our response to body imbalance must be reflexive; we do not have time to think about adjustments to prevent a fall or stumble. Therefore, information from balance receptors goes directly to reflex centers in the _______ _______.

the brain stem

Information from balance receptors goes directly to:

vestibular apparatus

the equilibrium receptors in the semicircular canals and vestibule

scala vestibuli

The oval window is connected directly to which passageway?


normal vision






loss of smell sensation

chorda tympani

branch of facial nerves called _________ ________ transmits taste sensations from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue


what nerve transmits taste sensation from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?


what nerve transmits taste sensations from the epiglottis and pharynx?

superior rectus muscle

what muscle moves the eyeball upward?

medial rectus muscle

what muscle adducts or moves the eyeball toward the nose?

inferior rectus muscle

what muscle moves the eyeball downward?

inferior oblique muscle

what muscle elevates the eyeball and rotates it laterally?

lateral rectus muscle

what muscle abducts; moves the eyeball toward the lateral edge of the orbit?


utilize the pigment rhodopsin


fluid found within the membranous labyrinth


fluid found in the bony labyrinth


the frequency of a sound


sound that is a mixture of several frequencies

conduction deafness

when sound conduction to the fluid of the inner ear is impeded

sensorineural deafness

can be caused by damage to the receptors in the cochlea or brain damage in the auditory regions


_________, an olfactory disorder is caused by head injuries or the aftereffects of nasal cavity inflammation

both the inner surface of the eyelids and the visible portion of the sclera

The conjunctival mucous membrane covers __________.

cornea, anterior segment, pupil, lens, posterior segment

list the passage of light entering the cornea


The near point of vision is the shortest in __________.

protect the hearing receptors from loud sounds

The tiny skeletal muscles associated with the ossicles of the middle ear function to __________.

more flattened

When focusing on a distant object, the lens is __________.


Ciliary glands are modified ________ glands.


Our eyes are best adapted for __________ vision.


Retinitis pigmentosa is a disease of the __________.


__________ receptors are one of the few types of neurons that can replace themselves in adult life.

bleaching of the pigment

process of breaking down the retinal-opsin combinations that form the rhodopsin found in the rods and cones


Which of the following neurotransmitters is involved with hearing in the inner ear?


The ________ of the eye lacks blood vessels.


The ________ muscles (also called the dilator pupillae) contract to dilate the pupil in dim light.


In response to bright light, the pupils constrict; this is a result of a contraction of the sphincter pupillae (also called the __________ muscles).


_________ humor supplies nutrients and oxygen to the lens and cornea.

in the roof of the nasal cavity

Where is the olfactory epithelium located?


Place the following events in the order in which they occur during sound transmission:
1. Tympanic membrane vibrates
2. Internal ear fluids are set in motion
3. Hearing receptors are stimulated
4. Ossicles of the ear vibrate
5. Auditory cortex is stimulated


________ equilibrium receptors monitor the position of the head.

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