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61 terms

A & P I Chapter 15

Which photoreceptors respond to very dim light?
The _____ focuses light on the retina.
fovea centralis
contains only cones, provides detailed color vision.
consists of a pigmented layer and a neural layer.
Which structure in the eye provides nutrition to all eye layers?
night blindness
The major function of the _____________ is to produce mucus to prevent the eyes from drying out
vitreous humor
supports the posterior surface of the lens.
cristae ampullares
Receptors for dynamic equilibrium are called ________ ___________. They are located in the semicircular canals of the ear, and they respond to head movements. They respond to rotation forces to monitor the position of the head.
olfactory receptor cells
They have a short life span of about 60 days. They are ciliated. They are chemoreceptors.
the auditory cortex is stimulated.
The final step in perceiving sound is:
The receptor for static equilibrium is the ________.
Concerning equilibrium, __________ respond to angular acceleration and deceleration.
________________ is a "hardening of the ear"; it decreases the ability of the ossicles of the ear to transmit vibrations.
Ringing in the ears is called:
____________ syndrome affects all three parts of the inner ear. It is characterized by tinnitus, vertigo, nausea, and vomiting.
otitis externa
inflammation of the outer ear.
outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane
As sound levels increase in the spiral organ (of Corti), . . .
The tastant must contact the basal cells of the taste buds.
Which of the following is not a requirement for something to be tasted?
-The tastant must dissolve in saliva.
-The tastant must diffuse into a taste pore.
-The tastant must contact gustatory hairs.
-The tastant must contact the basal cells of the taste buds.
brain stem
Our response to body imbalance must be reflexive; we do not have time to think about adjustments to prevent a fall or stumble. Therefore, information from balance receptors goes directly to reflex centers in the _______ _______.
the brain stem
Information from balance receptors goes directly to:
vestibular apparatus
the equilibrium receptors in the semicircular canals and vestibule
scala vestibuli
The oval window is connected directly to which passageway?
normal vision
loss of smell sensation
chorda tympani
branch of facial nerves called _________ ________ transmits taste sensations from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
what nerve transmits taste sensation from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?
what nerve transmits taste sensations from the epiglottis and pharynx?
superior rectus muscle
what muscle moves the eyeball upward?
medial rectus muscle
what muscle adducts or moves the eyeball toward the nose?
inferior rectus muscle
what muscle moves the eyeball downward?
inferior oblique muscle
what muscle elevates the eyeball and rotates it laterally?
lateral rectus muscle
what muscle abducts; moves the eyeball toward the lateral edge of the orbit?
utilize the pigment rhodopsin
fluid found within the membranous labyrinth
fluid found in the bony labyrinth
the frequency of a sound
sound that is a mixture of several frequencies
conduction deafness
when sound conduction to the fluid of the inner ear is impeded
sensorineural deafness
can be caused by damage to the receptors in the cochlea or brain damage in the auditory regions
_________, an olfactory disorder is caused by head injuries or the aftereffects of nasal cavity inflammation
both the inner surface of the eyelids and the visible portion of the sclera
The conjunctival mucous membrane covers __________.
cornea, anterior segment, pupil, lens, posterior segment
list the passage of light entering the cornea
The near point of vision is the shortest in __________.
protect the hearing receptors from loud sounds
The tiny skeletal muscles associated with the ossicles of the middle ear function to __________.
more flattened
When focusing on a distant object, the lens is __________.
Ciliary glands are modified ________ glands.
Our eyes are best adapted for __________ vision.
Retinitis pigmentosa is a disease of the __________.
__________ receptors are one of the few types of neurons that can replace themselves in adult life.
bleaching of the pigment
process of breaking down the retinal-opsin combinations that form the rhodopsin found in the rods and cones
Which of the following neurotransmitters is involved with hearing in the inner ear?
The ________ of the eye lacks blood vessels.
The ________ muscles (also called the dilator pupillae) contract to dilate the pupil in dim light.
In response to bright light, the pupils constrict; this is a result of a contraction of the sphincter pupillae (also called the __________ muscles).
_________ humor supplies nutrients and oxygen to the lens and cornea.
in the roof of the nasal cavity
Where is the olfactory epithelium located?
Place the following events in the order in which they occur during sound transmission:
1. Tympanic membrane vibrates
2. Internal ear fluids are set in motion
3. Hearing receptors are stimulated
4. Ossicles of the ear vibrate
5. Auditory cortex is stimulated
________ equilibrium receptors monitor the position of the head.