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250 terms

Counseling Theories Exam II Questions

STUDY
PLAY
Behavior therapy is associated with all but one of the following:
a philosophical view of human behavior.
Behavior therapy assumes that:
behavior is learned.
Behavior therapy is characterized by:
a focus on overt specific behavior.
a formulation of precise treatment goals.
the design of an appropriate treatment plan.
the objective assessment of the results of therapy.
Behavior therapy is based on:
applying the experimental method to the therapeutic process.
Michael believes that he will be able to improve his public speaking skills after completing a speech course at school. Based on social-cognitive theory, one might observe that Michael is not lacking in:
c. self-efficacy.
The main goal of behavior therapy is:
eliminating maladaptive learning and providing for more effective learning.
Which is not true of the relationship between therapist and client in behavior therapy?
The therapist is solely responsible for setting treatment goals.

True of relationship between therapist and client:
The relationship is considered collaborative.
Therapist and client work together in a warm and flexible manner.
The therapeutic relationship is an important factor in treatment outcomes.
What is the function of the behavior therapist?
a. to provide modeling for the client
b. to provide a collaborative therapeutic environment
c. to assess specific behavior problems
d. to provide reinforcement for clients
e. all of these.
Which of the following interventions is not associated with the third wave of behavior therapy?
relaxation training

Third wave therapies: DBT, ACT, and MBCBT
Which of the following is not true regarding behavior therapy?
The client is merely passive while the therapist uses techniques.
All of the following are true about social skills training except:
It requires clients to engage in catharsis.

True about Social Skills Training:
It is a psychoeducational approach to interpersonal growth.
It involves modeling and reinforcement techniques.
It uses role playing exercises to simulate social situations
Which anxiety reduction technique involves creating a hierarchy of the client's fearful experiences?
systematic desensitization
Behavior therapists look to the current environmental events that maintain problem behaviors and help clients produce behavior change by changing environmental events, through a process called:
a. functional assessment.
Behavior therapy is suited for:
a. individual therapy.
b. group therapy.
c. institutions and clinics.
d. classroom learning situations.
e. all of these.
In the ABC model, the A stands for:
b. antecedents
Which statement is not true?
Contemporary behavior therapy is increasingly concerned with behavioral control.

True Statements:

Behavioral and humanistic approaches cannot be reconciled.
Current behavior therapy is grounded on a deterministic view of persons.
Behavioral methods can be used to attain humanistic ends.
Contemporary behavior therapy focuses on how people are determined by their social and cultural environments.
Which of the following is not a basic characteristic of behavior therapy?
The therapist is manipulative and controlling.
Who has done most of the work in the area of modeling?
Albert Bandura
B. F. Skinner is associated with which of the following trends in the behavioral approach?
operant conditioning
Which of the following is not true about how behavior therapists function in the therapeutic setting?
a. They use techniques such as summarizing, reflection, clarification, and open-ended questioning.
b. They focus on specific aspects of problems.
c. They systematically assess for information about all aspects of the problem.
d. They serve as a model for the client.
e. All of these are true.
Phil has been in behavior therapy to address his fear of heights. The treatment will not be considered complete until:
a. Phil transfers what he learns in therapy to his everyday life and takes actual steps to confront his fear.
What is not a part of the steps in a self-directed change program?
exploration of one's family constellation
Which of the following is not one of the seven major areas of personality functioning described by the acronym "BASIC ID"?
aspirations
Which of the following is true about "technical eclecticism" in multimodal therapy?
Therapists use techniques from various theoretical models without subscribing to the theory.
In terms of ethical accountability, behavior therapy:
provides a basis for responsible practice.
Which of the following behavior therapists is credited with developing the social cognitive learning model, doing much work on observational learning and modeling, and writing about self-efficacy?
Bandura
Which of the following distinguishes the cognitive trend in behavior therapy from the trends of classical and operant conditioning?
the integration of thoughts and feelings in the process of behavior change
Multimodal therapy is a therapeutic approach that is grounded on:
social learning theory.
Haley has difficulty turning down dates and consistently allows men to take advantage of her. A behavioral intervention that may help Haley establish appropriate boundaries with others and speak up for herself is:
c. assertion training.
Which of the following clinical strategies is not necessarily employed during assertion training?
relaxation
Which of the following would not be considered a feature of a good self-contract?
It is a verbal agreement between client and therapist.
A limitation of behavior therapy is:
a.the overemphasis on feeling and the neglect of cognition.
b.the overemphasis upon insight.
c.the lack of empirical research validating its techniques.
d.the need for long-term treatment to effect change.
e. none of these
During the second wave of behavior therapy, therapists:
a. continued to emphasize empirically supported treatments.
b.increased their focus on the role of emotion in behavior change.
c.adopted a stronger biological perspective.
d.applied behavior therapy principles to prevention of disease and illness.
e. all of these
When practicing mindfulness:
a. clients learn to focus on one thing at a time and to bring their attention back to the present moment when distractions arise.
b. clients develop an attitude of curiosity and compassion to present experience.
c. clients learn how to be aware of themselves without being judgmental.
d. clients train themselves to intentionally focus on their present experience while at the same time achieving a distance from it.
e. all of these.
Wolpe's systematic desensitization is based on the principles of:
classical conditioning.
The situation in which behaviors are influenced by the consequences that follow them is:
operant conditioning.
Skinner's view of shaping behavior is based on the principle of:
operant conditioning.
______involves the removal of unpleasant stimuli from a situation once a certain behavior has occurred.
Negative reinforcement
In dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), skills are taught in four modules. Which among the following is not one of the modules listed in the text?
e. relapse prevention
_________ is a key pioneer of clinical behavior therapy because of his broadening of its conceptual bases and development of multimodal therapy.
Arnold Lazarus.
All of the following are characteristics of the behavioral approaches except:
Behavior therapy employs the same procedures to every client with a particular dysfunctional behavior.
In conducting a behavioral assessment, the client's functioning is taken into account in which area(s)?
a. emotional dimensions
b. cognitive dimensions
c. behavioral dimensions
d. interpersonal dimensions
e. all of these
What would be the most accurate way of describing mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) to a friend or colleague?
a. MBSR consists of the notion that much of our distress and suffering results from continually wanting things to be different from how they actually are.
b. MBSR aims to assist people in learning how to live more fully in the present rather than ruminating about the past or being overly concerned about the future.
c. MBSR does not actively teach cognitive modification techniques, nor does it label certain cognitions as "dysfunctional," because this is not consistent with the nonjudgmental attitude one strives to cultivate in mindfulness practice.
d. The approach adopted in the MBSR program is to develop the capacity for sustained directed attention through formal meditation practice.
e. All of these.
Behavior therapists tend to:
a. be active and directive.
b. function as consultants.
c. function as problem solvers.
d. all of these
All of the following are steps in the use of systematic desensitization except for:
hypnosis.
Techniques used in mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy include all but:
flooding.
Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) integrates techniques from:
b. mindfulness-based stress reduction and cognitive behavior therapy.
Self-management strategies include:
a. self-monitoring.
b. self-award.
c. self-contracting.
d. stimulus control.
e. all of these
If your client wanted to change a behavior, for instance, learning to control smoking, drinking, or eating, which behavioral technique would be most appropriate to employ?
self-management
Techniques that differentiate behavioral group therapy from other models of group work include all but:
a time-limited intervention.
In acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), another way to describe the term "acceptance" is:
b. nonjudgmental awareness.
Lazarus argues in favor of:
technical eclecticism.
Sergio is co-leading a social skills group for children with Aspergers. He and his co-leader must collect data on group members' progress:
b. before, during, and after all interventions.
The premise of the exposure-based therapies is that anxiety is reduced through:
pairing a feared stimulus with a competing, calming response.
In group settings, behavior therapists provide all of the following except:
little direct feedback.
The key principle in applied behavior analysis is:
a. to use the least aversive means to change behavior.
In vivo flooding consists of:
intense and prolonged exposure to the actual anxiety-producing stimuli.
EMDR is typically used to help clients:
restructure their cognitions regarding traumatic events.
Third-generation behavior therapies have been developed that center around five interrelated core themes. Which of these is not one of the core themes?
d. a more precise focus on psychopathology
Which is not true of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)?
DBT is a blend of Adlerian concepts and behavioral techniques.
The founder of rational emotive behavior therapy is:
Albert Ellis.
Rational emotive behavior therapy belongs to which category of therapy?
cognitive-behavior/action oriented
The cognitive-behavioral approach to therapy stresses:
thinking, judging, analyzing, and doing.
The correct components of the A-B-C theory of personality are:
activating event, belief, consequence.
REBT views emotional disturbances as the result of:
irrational thinking and behaving.
According to REBT, what is the core of most emotional disturbance?
blame
REBT contends that people:
do not need to be accepted and loved.
Which of the following statements does not reflect one of Ellis's three basic musts?
"I must be kind to others or else I won't be a good person."

Three basic musts:

"If others fail to treat me well, they must be miserable human beings."
"Others must like me and appreciate my talents or else I am a failure."
"I must get what I want when I want it or I won't be able to stand it."
REBT employs what kind of method to help people resolve their emotional and behavioral problems?
the empirical method
The main therapeutic goal of REBT is:
a. to teach clients how to recognize which ego state they are in.
b. to make the unconscious conscious.
c. to assist the client in becoming aware of his or her "being-in-the-world."
d. to challenge the client in making both a value judgment and moral decision about the quality of his or her behavior.
e. none of these
The main function of the rational emotive behavior therapist is to:
challenge clients to reevaluate their ideas and philosophy of life.
REBT can best be considered as:
a. an educative process.
b. a didactic process.
c. a process challenging ideas and thinking.
d. a teaching/learning process.
e. all of these.
Who developed a cognitive behavioral program for diet and maintenance and has written trade books about this topic?
Judith Beck
The role of the client in rational emotive behavior therapy is like that of a:
student or learner.
Which method is not employed in REBT?
free association
Which theorist is known for his or her abrasive, humorous, and flamboyant style?
Albert Ellis
Cognitive restructuring plays an important role in whose approach to therapy?
Judith Beck
A feature of REBT that distinguishes it from other cognitive-behavioral therapies is:
its systematic exposition of irrational beliefs that result in emotional and behavioral disturbance.
Beck's cognitive therapy involves all of the options below except:
conducting a lifestyle assessment.

Beck's cognitive therapy:

helping clients recognize and discard self defeating thinking.
looking at a client's "internal dialogue."
correcting erroneous beliefs.
Sonia, a recovering alcoholic, is going through relapse prevention. During this process, it is likely that she will:
be taught to view any lapses that occur as "learning opportunities" rather than "catastrophic failures."
Which of the following is the correct order of the three phases of Meichenbaum's stress-inoculation program?
conceptual-rehearsal-application
According to Ellis, we develop emotional and behavioral difficulties because:
we think of simple preferences as dire needs.
An REBT therapist would contend that anxiety stems from:
the internal repetition of irrational sentences.
In REBT, what method is taught to clients to help them challenge irrational beliefs?
disputational method
Which of the following is true about the relationship between a client and a rational emotive behavior therapist?
It is characterized by full acceptance and tolerance.
Which of the following REBT techniques helps a client gradually learn to deal with anxiety and challenge basic irrational thinking?
cognitive homework
According to REBT, it is important to change the way one uses language because:
a. imprecise language is one of the causes of distorted thinking processes.
b. language shapes thinking and behavior.
c. language shapes feelings.
d. all of these
The REBT technique that involves having clients imagine themselves in situations where they feel inappropriate feelings is called:
rational-emotive imagery.
Which of the following is not true about role playing in REBT?
It is a way of surfacing unfinished business.
Which REBT technique involves having the client do the very thing they avoid because of "what people might think?"
shame-attacking exercises
All of the following are true as they apply to self-instructional therapy, except that:
it is an outgrowth of an approach used widely by crisis intervention workers called self-induced change therapy.
Which of the following is not part of the five-step treatment procedure used in a coping-skills program?
evaluating the anxiety level of the client by using both physiological and psychological tests
All of the following are cognitive methods of REBT except for:
shame-attacking exercises.
Which of the following is not true of Beck's cognitive therapy?
It asserts that irrational beliefs lead to emotional problems.
One of the main ways that Beck's cognitive therapy differs from Ellis's REBT is that in Beck's approach, more so than in Ellis's approach:
the quality of the therapeutic relationship is basic to the therapy process.
In Meichenbaum's cognitive behavior modification, what is given primary importance?
inner speech
Stress inoculation training consists of all of the following except:
tapping into the unconscious realm.
One strength of cognitive behavioral therapy group counseling is that:
emphasis is placed on symptom prevention.
In cognitive therapy, techniques are designed to:
assist individuals in making alternative interpretations of events in their daily living.
The type of cognitive error that involves thinking and interpreting in all-or-nothing terms, or in categorizing experiences in either/or extremes, is known as:
polarized thinking.
Beck's cognitive therapy differs from Ellis's REBT in that Beck's approach emphasizes:
a. more of a Socratic dialogue.
b. helping clients to discover their misconceptions by themselves.
c. working with the client in collaborative ways.
d. more structure in the therapy process.
e. all of these
Beck's cognitive therapy has been most widely applied to the treatment of:
depression.
Which stage is not included in Meichenbaum's model for stress inoculation training?
the cognition deconstruction phase
The cognitive distortion of making conclusions without supporting and relevant evidence is:
arbitrary inferences.
The cognitive distortion that consists of forming conclusions based on an isolated detail of an event is:
selective abstraction.
The process of holding extreme beliefs on the basis of a single incident and applying them inappropriately to dissimilar events or settings is known as:
overgeneralization.
The tendency for individuals to relate external events to themselves, even when there is no basis for making this connection, is known as:
personalization.
The cognitive distortion that involves portraying one's identity on the basis of imperfections and mistakes made in the past and allowing them to define one's true identity is:
labeling and mislabeling.
To a large degree, cognitive therapy is:
a psychoeducational model.
The concept of automatic thoughts plays a central role in whose theory?
Beck
Of the following cognitive techniques, which one would Beck be least likely to employ?
confronting the musturbatory thinking of a client
According to Meichenbaum, the first step in the change process involves:
observing one's behavior and thinking patterns.
The constructivist perspective in cognitive therapy holds that:
d. there are multiple realities and a therapist's task is to help clients appreciate how they construct their realities and how they author their own stories.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of Meichenbaum's constructivist approach to cognitive behavior therapy?
It is more structured and more directive than standard cognitive therapy.
Jim told Margie, a cognitive therapist who has adopted a constructivist perspective, that he is a prisoner of his dysfunctional past. Margie should do all of the following except:
encourage him to tell the rest of his story.
Cognitive behavioral therapists assist clients in using language that:
a. is not self-condemning.
b. depicts the client's thoughts in a rational and accurate manner.
c. replaces absolutes with preferences.
d. all of these
Which of the following statements is true with regard to the fit between the cognitive behavioral approaches and multicultural counseling?
There is an "almost perfect fit" between cognitive behavior therapy and multicultural counseling because these perspectives share common assumptions that make integration possible.
Roberto, who struggles with feeling inadequate as a provider and husband, has come to work with a cognitive behavioral therapist. In addition to feeling inadequate, he feels angry that he has been marginalized by the mainstream culture. As his therapist, you should do all of the following except:
impress Roberto with your use of jargon to reinforce that you are the expert.
A noteworthy strength of the cognitive behavioral approaches is:
they have strong empirical support.
To what does the term "cognitive triad" refer?
It is a pattern that triggers depression.
Sandra is a reality therapist who is meeting her client Paul, who struggles with career indecision, for the first time. How might she begin her work with Paul?
by asking Paul what he wants from therapy
Reality therapy is best categorized as:
a form of cognitive behavior therapy.
Reality therapy has gained popularity with:
a. school counselors and administrators.
b. school teachers, both elementary and secondary.
c. rehabilitation workers.
d. all of the above
Reality therapy is best described as:
a short-term therapy that stresses doing.
The client's quality world consists of all of the following except:
insight.
WDEP stands for:
wants, doing, self-evaluation, planning.
Which of the following is not a component of total behavior?
wanting
A reality therapist would most likely respond to a client's complaint of melancholy, sad mood by saying:
"Sounds like you're depressing."
The function of the reality therapist is:
to assist clients in dealing with the present.
Wubboding believes all of the following encourage the client's involvement in therapy except for:
allowing the client to focus on symptoms.
In reality therapy, the counseling environment is:
characterized by a therapeutic climate that establishes the foundation for implementing procedures
Which method(s) is (are) often used in reality therapy?
a. behavior-oriented methods
b. the use of questioning
c. exploring a client's quality world
d. designing an action plan
e. all of these
What is Robert Wubbolding likely to say about people's problems?
"People don't have problems, they have solutions that have not worked."
Which of the following procedures would a reality therapist be least likely to employ?
reliving an early childhood event
Which of the following is not a function of the reality therapist?
focusing on areas in the client's life that need improvement so that he or she can achieve a
"success identity"
All of the following are true about planning and commitment in reality therapy, except:
A great deal of time is spent on this step of reality therapy.
Reality therapy is based on which of the following orientations to understanding human behavior?
existential-phenomenological
What do reality therapists believe about the use of questions?
Relevant questions help clients gain insights and arrive at plans and solutions.
Reality therapists are likely to deal with all of the following except for:
asking clients to recall, report, and share dreams.
A reality therapist will primarily focus on:
present behavior.
When reality therapists explore a client's past, they tend to focus on:
past successes.
In reality therapy, the purpose of developing an action plan is:
to arrange for successful experience.
In reality therapy, when a client fails to carry out their plans, the therapist will:
challenge the client to accept the reasonable consequence of his or her behavior.
Which of the following is (are) a contribution of reality therapy?
It provides a structure for both clients and therapist to evaluate the degree and the nature of changes
Reality therapy rests on the central idea that:
we choose our behavior and are responsible for what we do, think, and feel.
Glasser would agree with all of the following conclusions except:
We are most likely to change if we are threatened by punishment.
The core of reality therapy consists of:
teaching clients to take effective control of their own lives.
A limitation of this approach as it applies to multicultural counseling is:
oppressed clients may have little choice over their circumstances.
All of the following are procedures that are commonly used in reality therapy except:
exploring early recollections.
Which of the following procedures would a reality therapist be least likely to employ?
asking a client to emotionally reexperience a childhood experience
In a reality therapy group, the leader:
may encounter resistance from members when providing suggestions for how clients can best get what they want.
All of the following are key characteristics of contemporary reality therapy except for:
There is a focus on talking about symptoms that bring a client into therapy.
Which of these statements is not true?
Reality therapy does not lend itself to a group format.
In working with Japanese clients, a reality therapist might do which of the following when asking clients to make plans and commit to them?
The therapist might be likely to accept "I'll try" as a firm commitment.
According to Glasser, many of the problems of clients are caused by:
their inability to connect or to have a satisfying relationship with at least one of the significant people in their lives.
From the perspective of feminist therapy, the socialization of women inevitably affects their:
a. identity development.
b. self-concept.
c. goals and aspirations.
d. emotional well-being.
e. all of these
What do the four feminist philosophies (liberal, cultural, radical, and socialist feminism) have in common?
the same goal of activism
Feminist therapists, regardless of their philosophical orientation, believe all of the following except that:
human development and interaction are similar across races, cultures, and nations.
Stephanie, who believes strongly in feminist principles, is working in an agency that requires therapists to diagnose their clients using the DSM. Stephanie is likely to consider which of the following questions?
Who benefits from using this label? How might this label contribute to disempowering the person to whom it is assigned?
Which of the feminist principles views the therapist as simply another source of information, rather than as the expert in the therapy process?
The counseling relationship is egalitarian.
Which of the following feminist principles recognizes the importance of working against oppression and discrimination on the basis of race, class, culture, religious beliefs, sexual orientation, age, and disability?
All types of oppression are recognized.
Which of the following feminist principles implies that what has been typically viewed as individual clients' personal problems are really socially and politically caused?
The person is political.
All of the following are goals of feminist therapy except for:
resolving intrapsychic conflicts from early childhood.

Goals of Feminist Therapy:
striving for gender equality
confronting forms of institutional oppression.
helping clients embrace their personal power.
freeing clients of gender role socialization.
Although feminist therapy shares many of the premises of person-centered therapy, feminist therapy does not agree with the notion that:
the therapeutic relationship is, in and of itself, sufficient to produce change.
Which of the following themes would clients in feminist therapy be least likely to explore?
transference reactions toward their therapist
After having a bad therapeutic experience with a mental health professional who pathologized her anxiety over financial issues, Lillian decided to consult with a feminist therapist. How is her new therapist likely to view her anxiety symptoms?
as a sign of distress rather than psychopathology
Of the following, which intervention would a feminist therapist probably consider most essential?
social action
All of the following are reasons many feminist therapists do not use diagnostic labels, or use them reluctantly, except that:
diagnostic labels focus on the social factors that cause dysfunctional behavior.
The preferred alternative to traditional diagnosis and assessment of feminist therapists is:
gender role analysis.
Which of the following interventions involves a shift from "blaming the victim" to consideration of social factors in the environment that contribute to a client's problem?
reframing
All of the following strategies are unique to feminist therapy except for:
cognitive restructuring.
Of the following, which is not an assumption shared by the cognitive behavioral and feminist therapy approaches?
assuming that the therapeutic relationship alone is necessary and sufficient to bring about change
Who is most noted for her contributions to the development of feminist therapy?
Laura Brown
A feminist therapist is likely to become an advocate for change in the social structure by arguing for:
a. the right to self-determination.
b. the freedom to pursue a career outside the home.
c. the right to an education.
d. equality in power in relationships.
e. all of these
Of the following, which is one of the major contributions that feminists have made to the field of counseling?
paving the way for gender-sensitive practice
Which of these statements is not true about lesbian feminism?
Queer theory and lesbian theory are identical
The constructs of feminist theory, in contrast to traditional theories, include all of the following except for which characteristic?
intrapsychic orientation
The relational-cultural theory emphasizes the vital role:
that relationships and connectedness with others play in the lives of women.
The feminist perspectives on the development of personality:
a. encompass the diversity and complexity of women's lives.
b. attend to the ways in which diversity influences self-structures.
c. recognize the inextricable connection between internal and external worlds.
d. acknowledge the political and social oppression of women.
e. all of these
Which of the following principles of feminist psychology is most aimed at advancing a transformation in society?
Commitment to social change.
The feminist approach to group counseling involves all of the following except:
an opportunity to experience and analyze multiple transferences.
During the past 20 years ____________ have found classic feminist theories wanting and have offered new theoretical perspectives focused on issues of diversity, the complexity of sexism, and the centrality of social context in understanding gender issues.
postmodern feminists
A limit of the feminist approach from a diversity perspective is:
the tendency to impose upon a client personal values that may not be consistent with the client's cultural framework.
Which of the following is not considered one of the six core principles of feminist therapy?
an intrapsychic orientation
Feminist therapists reject:
the androcentric view.
A solution-oriented therapist might ask her client, a compulsive shopper, which of the following questions?
If a miracle happened and your shopping compulsion was solved overnight, how would you know it was solved, and what would be different?
The postmodern view incorporates all of the following concepts except for the notion that:
reality is objectively defined.
Donna feels certain that no one will ever want to hire her because she has a timid personality. Her solution-oriented therapist would be most inclined to:
ask Donna to examine another side of the story she is presenting about herself and think of times when she was accepted by others.
In the view of the postmodern therapist, the most essential element of therapy is:
the collaborative therapeutic relationship.
All of the following are techniques used in solution-focused therapy except for:
using the reflecting team
All of the following are characteristics shared by the postmodern and person-centered approaches except:
the importance of using specific techniques in therapy.
All are true of solution-focused brief therapists except that they:
focus on the client's early childhood experiences.
In the solution-oriented approach, which is not considered one of the three basic parts to the structure of summary feedback?
expressing concern
The therapeutic process in solution-focused brief therapy involves:
a. the premise that to some degree clients already know the solutions to their problems.
b. asking clients about those times when their problems were not present or when the problems were less severe.
c. believing that clients are the experts on their own lives.
d. trusting that solutions evolve out of therapeutic conversations and dialogues.
e. all of these
Which of the following is false as it applies to the practice of solution-focused brief therapy?
Using techniques in therapy is a way of discounting a client's capacity to find his or her own way.
Narrative therapy has been found to be particularly effective with diverse client populations for all of the following reasons except:
it teaches diverse clients to replace their own narratives with ones that conform more closely to the ideals and values of mainstream culture.
The role of the leader in solution-focused therapy groups is not:
to provide clients with simple solutions to their problems.
Which of these solution-focused therapy techniques involves asking clients to describe times in their lives when they were able to solve their problem or when their problem was less severe?
exception questions
Solution-focused brief therapy has parallels with______________, which concentrates on what is right and what is working for people rather than dwelling on deficits, weaknesses, and problems.
positive psychology
Which of the following statements about creating alternative stories is not true?
The narrative therapist analyzes and interprets the meaning of a client's story.
From a social constructionist perspective, change begins with:
deconstructing the power of cultural narratives.
Of the following, what is an interest that social constructionists tend to share?
generating new meaning in the lives of individuals
The techniques of externalization and developing unique events are associated primarily with:
the narrative approach.
Narrative therapists attempt to do all of the following except:
encourage free association.
Narrative therapists pay attention to "sparkling events." These are:
events that contradict problem-saturated narratives.
The creation of the self, which dominated the modernist search for human essence and truth:
is being replaced by postmodernists with the concept of socially storied lives.
A limitation of the postmodern approaches is:
inexperienced therapists may over rely on techniques and appear mechanistic.
Which is not a major contribution of the postmodern approaches?
research on these approaches is considered empirically generalizable.
The founder(s) of solution-focused brief therapy is (are):
Insoo Kim Berg and Steve de Shazer.
The founder(s) of narrative therapy is (are):
Michael White and David Epston.
Who was the first person of the modern era to do family therapy?
Adler
Which family therapist made use of innovative interventions such as metaphor, reframing, rules for interaction, parts party, family reconstructions, family sculpting, and family maps?
Satir
Which of the following statements about strategic family therapy is not true?
Presenting problems are viewed as being symptomatic of a dysfunction within the system.
Alfred Adler was the first to notice that the development of children within family constellations was heavily influenced by:
birth order.
Postmodern thought has contributed to family therapy by:
promoting the therapist's view of clients as the experts on their own lives.
Who was the person who refined Adler's concepts into a typology of mistaken goals and an organized approach to family therapy?
Rudolf Dreikurs
The concept of triangulation is most associated with:
Murray Bowen.
From the family systems perspective, symptoms are often viewed as:
an expression of a set of habits and patterns within a family
What is the technique in family therapy that casts a new light on a problem and provides a different interpretation for a problematic situation?
reframing
A major contribution of Bowen's theory is the notion of:
differentiation of the self.
The systems perspective implies:
individuals are best understood through the context of their role in their family.
Which is(are) a key role (or roles) of most family therapists?
a. teacher
b. model
c. coach
d. consultant
e. all of these
Which of the following techniques is a strategic family therapist least likely to use?
family sculpting
A tool for collecting and organizing key relationships in a three-generational extended family is a:
genogram.
Which of the following roles and functions would be least interesting to a structural family therapist?
giving voice to the therapist's own impulses and fantasies
Which of the following is least associated with Satir's human validation process model?
storied lives and narratives
The one central principle agreed upon by family therapy practitioners, regardless of their particular approach, is that
the client is connected to living systems.
Which approach to family therapy contends that one's current family problems will not significantly change until relationship patterns in one's family of origin are understood and directly challenged?
Bowenian family therapy
The techniques of joining, accommodating, unbalancing, tracking, and boundary making are most likely to be part of which approach to family therapy?
structural family therapy
A major contribution of Whitaker's approach to family therapy is:
spontaneity, creativity, and play as therapeutic factors in family therapy.
Roger and his wife are experiencing tension in their relationship because he believes she is far too lenient with their children when they misbehave. This forces him to play the role of "bad cop" as a parent, which makes him angry. A family therapist working with Roger and his family might:
help to modify the family's transactional rules and develop more appropriate boundaries.
____________________ views the counselor and therapist as an observer who is outside of the system, can assess what is going on, and can promote change—all without ever becoming part of the system.
First-order cybernetics
Chun Hei is a Korean immigrant who has been separated from her family and friends for over a year since she came to the U.S. with her husband. She spends her days taking care of their two young children while he goes to work, and feels increasingly depressed without her support system. It is likely that a family therapist who meets Chun Hei:
would be very interested in how her depression affects others in the family and how it influences family process.
Which approach assumes that a family can best be understood when it is analyzed from at least a three-generational perspective?
Bowenian family therapy
Which approach asserts that emotional fusion to one's family must be addressed if one hopes to achieve a mature and unique personality?
Bowenian family therapy
A couple directs the focus of their energy toward a problematic son as a way to avoid facing or dealing with their own conflicts. This is an example of:
triangulation.
In working with a triangulated relationship, Bowen would be inclined to place primary emphasis on:
maintaining a stance of neutrality.
Structural family therapy includes all of the following goals except for bringing about structural change by:
the therapist taking a not-knowing stance with a family.
The opposite of a differentiated self is experienced as:
emotional reactivity.
To prevent his parents from leaving the house, Miguel throws temper tantrums. His parents have given in to his demands and never go out to dinner or to movies anymore. A structural/strategic therapist working with Miguel and his parents will most likely:
have them participate in an enactment during the therapy session.
Which of the following individuals is not associated with family therapy?
Albert Ellis
Which approach would be most interested in the appropriateness of hierarchical structure in the family?
structural family therapy
Jean-Pierre told the family therapist that his wife loses control of her temper with their children because of his demanding work schedule and his inability to be there to support her. Which communication stance has he adopted?
placating
Family atmosphere, family constellation, and mistaken goals are key concepts of:
Adlerian family therapy
Yelina seems to ignore the major marital problems that she and her husband Carlos are having as a result of sharp differences in their viewpoints on political and social issues that are affecting their native country, Cuba. Whenever a friend points out the tension she observes, Yelina changes the subject and talks about the weather forecast. Yelina is adopting which of the following communication stances?
irrelevant
Which of the following theorists emphasized the development of a nurturing triad?
Satir
Adlerian family therapy strives to _____as its goal.
b. establish and support parents as effective leaders of the family
Problem descriptions and goal identification, typical day, the child interview and goal disclosure are techniques used in:
d. Adlerian family therapy.
A potential limitation of the family systems model is:
a particular family member's needs may be overshadowed by the needs of the system.
The therapy goals of promoting growth, self-esteem, and connection, and helping family members achieve congruent communication and interaction are most associated with which theory of family therapy?
Satir's human validation process model