Lower Extremity part 1 (The anatomy)
This is the firs of two sets that will deal with the packet Mr. Fannin gave us over the course of the break to study.
The foot consists of how many bones?
What is the natural degree of the foot?
It forms a natural 10 degree angle.
What are the 3 sections of the foot?
The forefoot, midfoot and hindfoot.
What parts does the forefoot include?
The metatarsals and the toes.
What parts does the midfoot include?
The five tarsals, cuneiforms, navicular and cuboid bones.
What parts does the hindfoot include?
The talus and the calcaneous.
What is the largest tarsal bone?
The superior portion of the foot is known as what?
The dorsal surface.
The bottom of the foot is referred to as what?
The plantar surface.
How many phalanges are in each foot?
Which end of the phalanx articulates with metatarsals?
How many metatarsals are in each foot? How are they numbered?
There are five number from the big toe to the pinky toe.
What forms the ball of the foot?
The heads of the metatarsals.
Which metatarsal is the longest?
One metatarsal has a prominent tuberosity; which one is it and why does it matter?
It's the fifth and it's because it is a common site of fractures.
What is the name given for a fracture of the tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal?
What is the name of the fracture of the second metacarpal?
I don't know. We're studying feet not hands.
The achilles tendon attaches to what?
The posterior tuberosity of the calcaneous.
The medial aspect of the ________ has a shelf-like over hang that is called the what?
The subtentaculum tali.
What bone occupies the superior portion of the foot?
Name the tarsal bones.
The cunieforms lie between two bones. What is the medial bone and what is the lateral bone?
The navicular is medial and the cuboid is lateral.
Which cueiform is the largest? The smallest?
The Medial is the largest.
The intermediate is the smallest.
These bones are not actually attached to the foot, but can be seen radiographiclly.
Where are the sesmoid bones located at?
Under the first metatarsal.
The leg consists of two bones. Which one is medial and which one is lateral?
The tibia is medial while the fibula is lateral.
Where is the head of the fibula located?
The proximal ed of the fibula. (closest to the knee joint)
Where is the apex of the fibula located?
The lateroposterior aspect of the head.
What is the enlarged distal end of the fibula?
The lateral mallelous.
This consists of a body and two expanded extremities.
What are the lateral and medial condyles of the tibia? What is their function?
Smooth facets on the superior surface or the tibia.
Their purpose is to form smooth articulation between the femur.
What are the flat like superior portions of the tibia known as?
What lies between the tibial plateaus?
The intercondylar eminence.
What are the "peaks' created by the plateaus on the tibia known as?
Medial and lateral intercodylar tubercules.
What does the head of the fibula articulate with?
The lateral condyle.
What does the patellae ligament attach to?
Where is the tibial tuerosity located?
Inferior to the condyles.
What is the name of the sharp ridge that runs on the anterior surface of the tibia?
The anterior crest.
The broad distal end of the tibia is where this is found.
The medial mallelous.
True or False?
The anterior tubercle of the tibia does not overlay the fibula in on the anteriolateral surface?
The anterior tubercle does indeed overlay the fibula on the anteriolateral surface.
The lateral surface of the tibia is flattened and contains a triangular notch for what?
Articulation with the fibula.
What does the under surface of the tibia articulate with?
The longest bone in the body is?
What is unique about the condyles of the femur?
There is a 5-7 cephallic degree needed to open the joint space on radiographs. This is due to the medial condyle being lower that the lateral condyle when the femur is vertical.
What portion of the femur articulates with the acetabulum of the hip?
The superior portion. It forms a ball and socket joint.
What are the large eminences located at the distal end of the femur?
The larger medial condyle and the smaller lateral condyle.
Above each condyle is a what?
The medial condyle contains something very important what is it?
The aductor tubercle, the raised bony area that receives the adductor muscle.
What is so important about the aductor tubercle radiographically?
It is what we look at for rotation in a lateral projection.
What is the largest sesmoid bone in the body?
Where is the apex of the patella located? What about the base?
The apex is the point on the inferior aspect of the patella.
The base is the superior aspect.
When does the patella develop?
Around 3-5 years of age.
Where is the patella in relation to the femur?
It sits at the distal anterior surface.
What is one of the more complex joints in the human body?
The knee joint.
The femur, tibia. fibula and patella are all held together by what?
A complex group of ligaments.
What do the ligaments of the knee do?
They help provide stability to the knee joint.
True or False.
Most pts. with knee injuries do not have fractures but torn ligaments.
Torn ligaments can result in what?
Severe pain and possibly alter the position of the bone.
What are the main ligaments of the knee?
Posterior cruciate ligament
Anterior cruciate ligament
In regards to the knee why are the tibial plateaus important?
The tibial plateaus are where the medial and lateral meniscus sit.
The meniscus are _______ on the ________ side and _________ on the _________ side.
What is the best way to demonstrate a torn meniscus?
An MRI or arthography.
How many bones does the calcaneous articulate with and what are they?
The cuboid anteriorly
The talus superiorly
Superior articulation with the talus and the calcaneous forms what?
The subtalar joint.
How may articulations are there at the subtalar joint? What is the signifigance?
3. They help to keep the body's weight evenly distributed.
This is an opening found in the middle of the subtalar joint which allows ligaments to pass through.
Where would the interosseusus ligament pass through?
The sinus tarsi.
What is the calcaneous' contribution to the sinus tarsi?
The calcaneal sulci help make up the sinus tarsi.
How many bones does the talus articulate with? What are they?
The tibia and fibula superiorly
the calcaneous inferiorly
The navicular anteriorly
How many bones does the navicular articulate with and what are they?
Posteriorly with the talus.
Anteriorly with the three cuneiforms.
Do the cuneiforms articulate with any bones?
Yes. They articulate with four bones.
The calcaneous proximally
The lateral cuniforme medially and the 4th and 5th metatarsals distally.
The ankle joint is commonly referred to as what?
The mortise or ankle mortise joint.
How is the mortise joint formed?
It is formed by the lateral mallelous and the medial mallelous. They form a type of socket structure that articulates with the superior portion of the talus.
True or False
The calcaneous fits into the mortise.
The talus is the superior most portion of the foot and it is what fits in the mortise.
What is the primary action of the ankle?
Dorsiflexion and plantar extension.