21 terms

Phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata

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notochord
A flexible, dorsal, cartilagenous rod that in most vertebrates becomes the backbone of the organism
vertebrae
The small bones that make up the backbone and protect the spinal chord
ectotherm / cold blooded
An animal that cannot regulate its own body temperature. It is susceptible to environmental temperatures
endotherm / warm blooded
An animal that CAN regulate its own body temperature regardless of environmental temperatures.
endoskeleton
A skeleton on the inside of the animal that provides support and protection of internal organs
exoskeleton
A skeleton on the outside of the animal that provides support and protection of internal organs
swim bladder
An internal gas-filled organ that helps a bony fish stabilize its body at different water depths. They can maintain buoyancy and position with less effort
placenta
An organ in placental mammals through which nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchanged between baby and mother
marsupial
Mammals of which the females have a pouch (the marsupium) containing the teats where the young are fed and carried ex) Koala bear, kangaroo
monotreme
A group of mammals that have hair and mammary glands but reproduce by laying eggs ex0 duck-billed platypus, echidna
Archaeopteryx
Seen as a "missing link" between reptiles and birds. One of the earth's first birds with feathers. Probably glided between tree tops
diaphragm
Large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that is critical for breathing
air sacs / alveoli
The part of the lungs where the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen takes place - they increase the surface area for gas exchange and aid in buoyancy for birds
convergent evolution
It is evolution towards the same type of adaptation amongst different groups of organisms. Ex. wing of an insect vs wing of a bird = analogous structures . Analogous structures = structures that have the same function but the way they are put together is different = different structures.
analogous structures
Structures that have the same function but the way they are put together is different = different structures.
divergent evolution
it is evolution which has led to structures being adapted from an original body plan. Ex. forelimb of mammals = same bone pattern but each limb is specialized / adapted to the animal's way of life (human with grasping hand vs whale with flipper for swimming or bat with wing for flight) = homologous structures. Homologous structures = structures that have different functions but the same structure due to having a common ancestor.
homologous structures
Structures that have different functions but the same structure due to the organisms having a common ancestor.
vestigial structures
Remnants of a structure that had a function in an ancestor but no longer does in the evolved organism. Ex. appendix, tail bone, snake pelvis
gradualism
Evolution that occurs slowly and steadily over time. Ex. sharks, crocodiles, cockroaches, horseshoe crab
punctuated equilibrium
There is a period of stability where no evolution occurs which is followed by periods of rapid change and evolution to a species of plant or animal. Ex. mammals, birds
speciation / adaptive radiation
Where one species gives rise to (evolves into) more than one other species.