fee charged by a dealer acting as a principal in a transaction of an OTC stock
purchase if US government securities from the trustee. used to effectively retire existing debt for a municipality
compnent of secondary market that includes the stock exchanges and exchanges that trade equity options
unit-investment trust, considered non-managed. purchases a select portfolio of securities which is fixed for life of trust
brokerage house acting as a representative of a govt agency to market and sell new issues to the public
green shoe clause
provision of most underwriting agreements stating that in the face of strong public demand for an offering, the corporation will issue an additional number of shares
securities Act of 1934
regulates margin accounts and gives authority to refulations to FRB. Prohibits stock price manipulation. Requires registration of exchanges and their member firms with SEC
. jointly owned by the exchanges, regulated by the SEC, and sets standardized terms for options.
mortgages made into a derivative product
replacing existing municipal debt with a new issue when the old one matures
bonds backed by taxation of the issuing municipality
bonds issued for new project funding. i.e. roads and bridges
implicitly backed. issues securities to purchase VA, FHA, & commercial mortgages in the markets
risk that a homeowner pays off mortgages early, causing the funds used for bond issues to be redeemed earlier than expected.
strike price + premium
measures liquidity by determining the # of contracts that have not yet expired, been exercised, or been closed out.
Prof. Management, diversification, and liquidity
three fundamental advantages for smaller investors
pool of investments is not static,
an investment company that sells pieces of interest in the income arising from a pool of securities
types of REITs
equity REITs, mortgage REITs, combination REITs
do not pay corporate taxes on ordinary income from the underlying portfolio if: 95% of REITs income is distributed to investors; 90% of income comes from rents and interest on real property or dividends and interest on securities; 75% of gross income is from rents and interest on real property; 75% of REITs assets consist of real estate, govt securities, orcash
rate of interest at which dealers determine investors will buy a new municipal bonds
explicitly backed; sells govt backed securities to raise funds for VA and FHA residential mortgages
second major NY stock exchange; noted for its listings of oil & gas companies, and for its foreign securities. it lists close to 1000 medium-sized companies.
trading of exchange listed securities by an otc firm rather than by a member of the exchange.
broker/dealer who acts as an intermediary in a transaction helping an investor purchase stocks from or sell them to a second dealer. charges commission
fee charged by a broker dealer to its customers, it is a PERCENTAGE of the total cost of the securities that were bought/sold
Reg A Exemption
small issue exemption; regulation allowing companies to make public offerings of up to 5 million without meeting normal SEC registration requirements
difference between the pop and the amount the issuing corp receives.
notice placed in a financial paper that announces a new issue. it names the issuer, size, price, and syndicate members
penalty bid clause
provision that cancels the fee earned by a member of und. syndicate if its customers are found to be selling their shares back to the lead underwriter who has just aced a stabilizing bid
due diligence meeting
meeting held at the end of the cooling off period in which the issuer, lead underwriter, and syndicate members make sure all security laws have been met.
receive one vote for each ballot item
one vote per share per voting matter, use them as they see fit
regular way settlement
standard required completion of a security transaction on the third full business day after the trade
corporate bond indenture
specifies: total amount of issue; par value; coupon; maturity date; property pledged as collateral; protective covenants; call put provisions
bank qualified issues
banks may deduct 80% of interest they pay as ling as they are not: private activity binds or cannot issue more than 10 million
Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principals of Securities.
short-term debt of 13, 26, and 52 weeks. 13 and 26 week auctions every monday, 52 week every 4 weeks on a tuesday. purchase price = discount rate x par x fraction of year remaining
11-30 year maturities. sold on % of par basis. returns are frequently used as benchmark for other long-term investments
2-10 years. sold on % of par basis.
issued by company in bankruptcy; replaces existing bonds with higher face value than original and pay interest only when company generates income
NYSE Rule 396
nine-bond rule; and nyse firm that is executing an order for 9 bonds or fewer mist place the order on the floor for one hour before sending it to the otc market
total amount of interest payments the issuer makes over the life of the bond; amount of each maturity x corresponding interest rate x appropriate # of years
notice of sale
an advertisement in the bond buyer; includes: amount of the sale, type of bond, dated date (date which interest will start accruing), taxes that are backing the issue, and process for submitting bids
tracks visible supply of bonds, supplies info on new issues, and gives placement ratios for all issues that dealers have placed
four main indices of bond buyer
Bond Buyer Index: 20 municipals, 20 years, A or better Eleven Bond Index: 11from the 20, avg AA or better Revenue Bond Index: 25 revenues, 30 year maturity Municipal Bond Index: 40 heavily traded, 19 years maturity, A or better
good faith deposit
entered with official bid; generally 2% of the bids value
compensation a person or company receives for providing goods and services. certain expenses can be deducted
generated by a business venture in which the tax payer has no active managerial role. example: a limited partners income from a dpp is passive bc by law the limited partner cannot participate in daily operations.
income from dividend or interest payments on securities, as well as capital gains from investments
profits realized when an asset is sold for more than it was purchased
can be carried forward 2 years! realized when an asset is sold for less than it was originally purchased for. in general, they can be written off against capital gains.
an assets cost for tax purposes. includes purchase price and expenses.
short term capital gains
gains realized on assets of up to ine year; taxed at same rate as investors income (up to 35%)
long term capital gains
gains realized on assets held more than a year; taxed based on tax bracket (5% and 10% pay 5%; 25%, 28%, 33%, and 35% pay 15%)
territories and possessions
interest income is exempt, capital gains are taxed as other securities
corporate dividend exclusion
owns less than 20% of another company then it pays no tax on 70%; if it owns 20% or more then 80%of dividend is tax free
the IRS assumes shares are sold via this basis, or the order in which they were purchased, if the investor does not designate which shares are being sold.
how corporate bonds are taxed
for bonds held to maturity, gains and losses are never treated as capital gains
short term capital loss
holders who allow options to expire...
short term capital gain
writers of expired options have ...
long term equity anticipation options
donor of the gift
who is taxed with regards to gifts?
11,000; federal gift tax
individuals can give HOW MUCH per person per year without being taxed by THIS TAX
first 2 million is tax free. also, cost basis is the current market price at time of death, and capital gains/losses are treated as long term
an investor sells a stock that he/she does not own, borrowing it from a broker and replacing it at a later date.
short against the box
an investor sells short a security that he/she already owns.
60 days beyond closing out
how long must an investor remain at risk? no gains during this period.
sale of a security and the repurchase of "substantially the same security" within 30 days
municipal bond tax swap
investors who sell municipal bonds must purchase other municipals with at least two of these three different: issuer, interest rate, and maturity.
the potential income from one investment that was forgone when the investor chose a different investment.
refers to the volatility or variability of a given security's returns.
average of squared deviations around an average. (dispersion of actual annual returns around the average return over a given time)
square root of the variance.
demonstrated by historical returns, and the standard deviations of those returns, on t-bills, t-bonds, and common stocks
additional return required by investors for investing in longer term Treasury bonds, ad opposed to t-bills.
extra return over the risk-free returns that investors insist on when purchasing risky securities.
market risk and unique risk
two most important risks in terms of investment portfolio theory.
market or systematic risk
nondiversifiable because it can never be mitigated completely. type of risk in which a downturn in the economy as a whole, or decline in the larger securities market, might negatively affect the securities of an individual issuer, regardless of that company's own performance over the same period.
unique or nonsystematic risk
associated strictly with the issuer; can be eliminated by diversification.
frequently referred to as the market portfolio
capital asset pricing model
CAPM expected return on a stock = risk free rate (return on tbills) + beta -return on market port. (s&p500)
(risk free rate plus risk premium times the beta)
a measure of the sensitivity of a stocks return to fluctuations in the market.
generally have betas greater than 1.0. tend to follow the business cycle
generally have negative betas and move against the market.
when changes in laws might lower an investors profits
stems from the inability to convert a security to cash easily or quickly
results when a borrower might not have the capacity to make timely interest an principal payments
interest rate risk
mainly a risk for bonds. this rate and bond prices are inversely related
purchasing power risk
a security's rate of return will not keep pace with inflation. dilutes the overall return
relates to international investments
clients unique objective
a brokers first consideration in creating a securities portfolio is this...
safeguarding of principal
blue chip and defensive stocks. this objective is less interested in growing capital as it is reducing the risk of losing capital. typically an objective of someone with limited funds or nearing retirement
objective to maximize current investment income. bonds and stocks with high dividends compose this type of portfolio. utility companies are know for paying high dividends
wants the value of investment to grow at a rate equal or greater than the market. this objectives comes from risk-takers or younger investors
seeks greatest possible gain and willing to take any risk. young investors with large incomes and few commitments.
this portfolio tends to be built around growth and speculation. high gains set off by high risk
this portfolio tends to be built around income, liquidity, and principal safeguarding. uses diversification to eliminate unique risk
a limit is placed on the total amount that is invested in a particular industry or region
no constraints on how much money is concentrated in an industry or region provided that the portfolio, as a whole, remains diversified
velocity of money
the turnover that a dollar experiences over a given period
resolve trade imbalances and maintain a fair and orderly market
duties of a specialist on the NYSE
duties of municipal bond counsel
prepare the legal opinion, validate the issue, examine the treasury arbitrage restrictions to prevent tax law violations; DO NOT set the underwriting spread
Which of the following does not enforce MSRB rules: SEC, FINRA, Comptroller of the Currency, or MSRB?
put credit spread
when an investor received more for the put that he sold than he paid for. Want the spread to narrow. Want options to expire
A member of the syndicate is entitled concession plus the additional takedown. This is called the:
A customer sells 100 shares of GM short. GM pays a 5% stock dividend. When the customer covers the short position, the customer will have to deliver
a trade that is executed at the given price or better. (higher for a sell limit order; lower for a buy limit)
the only instrument that is used as a means of financing foreign trade
American Depositary Receipt
facilitates the trading of foreign securities in U.S. markets
pay interest and principal in Eurodollars (U.S. dollars deposited in nondomestic banks) and are not used to finance importing and exporting operations
buy limit and sell stop
An open buy limit order An open sell limit order An open buy stop order An open sell stop order Which is entered BELOW the market price?
head and shoulders top formation is bearish, bullish, neutral, or highly unpredictable?
where buyers came into the market to buy the stock and thereby "help" its price. It would be at this point that the stock stopped decreasing
these would theoretically provide the greatest protection against loss of purchasing power. The payout is based upon the securities in the separate account which historically have increased in inflationary periods.
Net revenue to debt service
When computing "coverage" for revenue bonds, the ratio used is
Total par value of new issues sold during previous week divided by Total par value of new issues issued during previous week
The theory which states that the small investor is usually wrong because he is uninformed, buying at market peaks and selling at market bottoms
Orders are sent directly to the specialist by computer, Orders do not go through a floor broker, and Transaction reports are received faster than those executed by floor brokers: all true about the ______ trading system
The proceeds of the sale of a municipal bond issue are invested in U.S. government securities that are sufficient to cover interest, principal, and call premiums on an outstanding bond issue
Fed Funds rate
Which rate is most volitile? prime rate, discount rate, call rate, or federal funds rate
The settlement date between the Options Clearing Corporation and the clearing firm for options transactions.
The payment date for securities purchased in a cash or margin account as stated by Regulation T
When interest rates at savings banks are lower than money market instruments & When the FRB is pursuing a tight monetary policy which is causing a rise in interest rates; this causes....
applies to mergers, consolidations, reclassification of securities, or transfer of corporate assets
A syndicate letter used in the formation of a municipal syndicate account will contain all of the following EXCEPT: account manager, member participation, reoffering yields, or duration of the account
Investment Banking Department
which department underwrites new issues, provides financing for industrial corporations, and distributes large blocks of already outstanding securities
order book official
Which of the following is an employee of an options exchange: Market maker Board broker Order book official Floor broker
Money received by a corporation when it sells its stock above its par value is called
market value divided by earnings per share (EPS)
8 1/2 percent
A broker-dealer selling mutual fund shares to a client is permitted a maximum sales charge of:
All of the following are of importance with regard to the debt structure when analyzing a municipal bond EXCEPT: Total bonded debt, Total direct debt, Overlapping debt, or Matured debt
additional bonds test
To determine what would happen to the coverage of revenue bonds when more bonds are to be issued in the future, one should examine
ABC Corporation has net income of $8 million. There are one million shares of common stock and one million shares of preferred stock outstanding. The preferred stock pays a $1.00 annual dividend. The earnings per share for the common stock is
may be segregated and identified as belonging to the customer
Fully paid customer securities held at a brokerage firm: May be used as collateral for brokerage firm loans May be commingled with other customers' securities Must be segregated and identified as belonging to the customer None of the above
exploratory or wildcat program
The riskiest type of oil and gas project would be a(n):
before the purchas
If a customer wants to purchase securities in an account that has been frozen, when must he deposit the required cash in the account?
A type of offering in which whatever is not sold is retained by the issuing corporation is
A type of offering in which the issuing corporation is assured of receiving the full amount of the offering, and whatever is not sold is retained by the underwriter, is
Customers are charged interest on the average daily amount of the _____ balance in their margin account
The investor can make a maximum deductible contribution to a _____ plan of 20% of the income earned as a self-employed antique dealer or $50,000, whichever is less
an order that a specialist can not accept
capital loss at time option expires
If a put or call option expires, the amount of the premium paid by the purchaser of the option is considered for tax purposes to be
If the economy is moving in a recessionary direction, one would expect that the yield spread between U.S. Treasury issues and intermediate grade corporate bonds to
5 business days
When you purchase an option contract, according to Regulation T, the transaction must be paid for in:
collateral trust bond
A bond secured by other bonds and securities is referred to as a
Dow Jones Composite Average
A measurement of the market based on 65 stocks is known as the:
Maintaining a fair and orderly market and acting as a broker for other brokers is the function of the
Yield to maturity
A municipal bond is currently trading at 92 and is callable in 10 years at par. What would be the effective yield that must be disclosed on a customer's confirmation? Yield to call, Yield to maturity, Fixed yield, Current yield
Which of the following would have the least capital risk for a client? Options, Bonds, Warrants, or Stocks
revenue bond's indenture
The legal opinion , A rate covenant, and The maturity feature ARE ALL features of a:
An investor wrote a 850 Index Option Call. The option was exercised and the index closed at 860. The writer would: Deliver the index, Receive the index, Deliver cash, or Receive cash
Where may a brokerage firm store information about business continuity offices electronically with FINRA?