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Chapter 24 APUSH!!

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When private railroad promoters asked the United States government for subsidies to build their railroads, they gave all of the following reasons:
too risky without government help, too costly without government help, private investors would not accept initial financial losses, and impossible to serve military and postal needs without government help.
During the Gilded Age, most of the railroad barons built their railroads with
government assistance.
The national government helped to finance transcontinental railroad construction in the late nineteenth century by providing
railroad corporations with land grants.
1. James J. Hill -
2. Cornelius Vanderbilt -
3. Leland Standord -
1. Great Norther
2. New York Central
3. Central Pacific
The only transcontinental railroad built without government aid was the
Great Northerner.
One by-product of the development of the railroads was the movement of people to
cities
The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the post-Civil War years was the
railroad network
The United States changed to standard time zones when the major rail lines decreed common fixed times so that they could
keep their schedules to avoid wrecks.
Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profits were called
pools
Early railroad owners formed "pools" in order to avoid competition by
dividing business in a particular area.
Efforts to regulate the monopolizing practices of railroad corporations first came in the form of action by the
Supreme Court
The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations was the
Interstate Commerce Commission.
One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was that it represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to
regulate business.
After the Civil War, the plentiful supply of unskilled labor in the United States helped to build the nation into an
industrial giant
One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their profits was
increased competition
1. Andrew Carnegie -
2. John D. Rockefeller -
3. J. Pierpont Morgan -
1. vertical integration
2. trust
3. interlocking directorate
1. Andrew Carnegie -
2. John D. Rockefeller -
3. J. Pierpont Morgan -
4. James Duke -
1. steel
2. oil
3. banking
4. tobacco
The steel industry owed much to the inventive genius of
Henry Bessemer.
J.P. Morgan undermined competition by placing officers of his bank on the boards of supposedly independent companies that he wanted to control. This method was known as
an interlocking directorate.
America's first billion-dollar corporation was
United States Steel
The first major product of the oil industry was
kerosene
The oil industry became a huge business with the invention of
the internal combustion engine.
John D. Rockefeller used all of the following tactics to achieve his domination of the oil industry:
employing spies, extorting rebates from railroads, pursuing a policy of rule or ruin, and using high-pressure sales methods.
The "gospel of wealth," which associated godliness with riches encouraged many millionaires to help
the poor
To help corporations, the courts ingeniously interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment, which was designed to protect the rights of ex-slaves, so as to avoid corporate regulation by
the states
The Fourteenth Amendment was especially helpful to giant corporations when defending themselves against regulation by
state governments.
The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was at first primarily used to curb the power of
railroad corporations
During the age of industrialization, the South remained overwhelmingly rural and
agricultural
The South's major attraction for potential investors was
cheap labor
In the late nineteenth century, tax benefits and cheap, nonunion labor especially attracted textile manufacturing to
the "new south"
Many Southerners saw employment in the textile mills as
the only steady jobs and wages available.
One of the greatest changes that industrialization brought about in the lives of workers was the need for them to
adjust their lives to the time clock.
The group most affected by the new industrial age was
women
Despite generally rising wages in the late nineteenth century, industrial
workers were extremely vulnerable to all of the following:
economical swings and depressions, employers' whims, sudden unemployment, and illness and accident.
The image of the "Gibson Girl" represented a romantic ideal of
the independent and athletic "new woman."
Most women works of the 1890s worked for
economic necessity.
A closed shop is least similar to:
lockout, yellow dog contract, blacklist and company town.
Generally, the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to
favor corporations.
1. National Labor Union -
2. Knights of Labor-
3. American Federation of Labor -
1. a social-reform union killed by the depression of the 1870s
2. the "one big union" that championed producer cooperatives and industrial arbitration
3. an association of unions pursuing higher wages, shorter working hours, and better working conditions
In its efforts on behalf of workers, the National Labor Union won an eight-hour day for
governing workers.
One group barred from membership in the Knights of Labor was
Chinese
The Knights of Labor believed that conflict between capital and labor would disappear when labor would own and operate
businesses and industries.
One of the major reasons the Knights of Labor failed was its
lack of class-consciousness.
The Knights of Labor believed that republican traditions and institutions could be preserved from corrupt monopolies by strengthening the economical and political independence of the
workers
The most effective and most enduring labor union of the post-Civil War period was
the American Federation of Labor.
By 1900, American attitudes toward labor began to change as the public came to recognize the right of workers to bargain collectively and strike. Nevertheless, the vast majority of employers continued to
fight organized labor.
By 1900, organized labor in America had begun to develop a more positive image with
the public.
The people who found fault with the "captains of industry" mostly argues that these men built their corporate wealth and power by
exploiting workers.
Even historians critical of the captains of industry and capitalism generally concede that class-based protest has never been a powerful force in the United States because America has greater social mobility than
Europe has
All of the following were important factors in post-Civil War industrial expansion:
a large pool of unskilled labor, an abundance of natural resources, American ingenuity and inventiveness, and a political climate favoring business.