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When private railroad promoters asked the United States government for subsidies to build their railroads, they gave all of the following reasons:

too risky without government help, too costly without government help, private investors would not accept initial financial losses, and impossible to serve military and postal needs without government help.

During the Gilded Age, most of the railroad barons built their railroads with

government assistance.

The national government helped to finance transcontinental railroad construction in the late nineteenth century by providing

railroad corporations with land grants.

1. James J. Hill -
2. Cornelius Vanderbilt -
3. Leland Standord -

1. Great Norther
2. New York Central
3. Central Pacific

The only transcontinental railroad built without government aid was the

Great Northerner.

One by-product of the development of the railroads was the movement of people to


The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the post-Civil War years was the

railroad network

The United States changed to standard time zones when the major rail lines decreed common fixed times so that they could

keep their schedules to avoid wrecks.

Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profits were called


Early railroad owners formed "pools" in order to avoid competition by

dividing business in a particular area.

Efforts to regulate the monopolizing practices of railroad corporations first came in the form of action by the

Supreme Court

The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations was the

Interstate Commerce Commission.

One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was that it represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to

regulate business.

After the Civil War, the plentiful supply of unskilled labor in the United States helped to build the nation into an

industrial giant

One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their profits was

increased competition

1. Andrew Carnegie -
2. John D. Rockefeller -
3. J. Pierpont Morgan -

1. vertical integration
2. trust
3. interlocking directorate

1. Andrew Carnegie -
2. John D. Rockefeller -
3. J. Pierpont Morgan -
4. James Duke -

1. steel
2. oil
3. banking
4. tobacco

The steel industry owed much to the inventive genius of

Henry Bessemer.

J.P. Morgan undermined competition by placing officers of his bank on the boards of supposedly independent companies that he wanted to control. This method was known as

an interlocking directorate.

America's first billion-dollar corporation was

United States Steel

The first major product of the oil industry was


The oil industry became a huge business with the invention of

the internal combustion engine.

John D. Rockefeller used all of the following tactics to achieve his domination of the oil industry:

employing spies, extorting rebates from railroads, pursuing a policy of rule or ruin, and using high-pressure sales methods.

The "gospel of wealth," which associated godliness with riches encouraged many millionaires to help

the poor

To help corporations, the courts ingeniously interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment, which was designed to protect the rights of ex-slaves, so as to avoid corporate regulation by

the states

The Fourteenth Amendment was especially helpful to giant corporations when defending themselves against regulation by

state governments.

The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was at first primarily used to curb the power of

railroad corporations

During the age of industrialization, the South remained overwhelmingly rural and


The South's major attraction for potential investors was

cheap labor

In the late nineteenth century, tax benefits and cheap, nonunion labor especially attracted textile manufacturing to

the "new south"

Many Southerners saw employment in the textile mills as

the only steady jobs and wages available.

One of the greatest changes that industrialization brought about in the lives of workers was the need for them to

adjust their lives to the time clock.

The group most affected by the new industrial age was


Despite generally rising wages in the late nineteenth century, industrial
workers were extremely vulnerable to all of the following:

economical swings and depressions, employers' whims, sudden unemployment, and illness and accident.

The image of the "Gibson Girl" represented a romantic ideal of

the independent and athletic "new woman."

Most women works of the 1890s worked for

economic necessity.

A closed shop is least similar to:

lockout, yellow dog contract, blacklist and company town.

Generally, the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to

favor corporations.

1. National Labor Union -
2. Knights of Labor-
3. American Federation of Labor -

1. a social-reform union killed by the depression of the 1870s
2. the "one big union" that championed producer cooperatives and industrial arbitration
3. an association of unions pursuing higher wages, shorter working hours, and better working conditions

In its efforts on behalf of workers, the National Labor Union won an eight-hour day for

governing workers.

One group barred from membership in the Knights of Labor was


The Knights of Labor believed that conflict between capital and labor would disappear when labor would own and operate

businesses and industries.

One of the major reasons the Knights of Labor failed was its

lack of class-consciousness.

The Knights of Labor believed that republican traditions and institutions could be preserved from corrupt monopolies by strengthening the economical and political independence of the


The most effective and most enduring labor union of the post-Civil War period was

the American Federation of Labor.

By 1900, American attitudes toward labor began to change as the public came to recognize the right of workers to bargain collectively and strike. Nevertheless, the vast majority of employers continued to

fight organized labor.

By 1900, organized labor in America had begun to develop a more positive image with

the public.

The people who found fault with the "captains of industry" mostly argues that these men built their corporate wealth and power by

exploiting workers.

Even historians critical of the captains of industry and capitalism generally concede that class-based protest has never been a powerful force in the United States because America has greater social mobility than

Europe has

All of the following were important factors in post-Civil War industrial expansion:

a large pool of unskilled labor, an abundance of natural resources, American ingenuity and inventiveness, and a political climate favoring business.

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